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क्वँय्‌नाप स्वापू दूगु एनातोमिक खँग्वः

थीथी कथंया क्वँय्‌Edit

 
थीथी कथंया क्वँय्

ताःहाकः क्वँय्Edit

हाकः ब्याः स्वया अप्व दूगु चाकःलागु क्वँय्। थ्व परिभासा क्वँय्‌या आकारया आधारय् बियातःगु ख। अथे जूगुलिं हाकः लहिना स्वयेबिलय् चिहाकःगु क्वँय् नं ताःहाकः क्वँय् धका कायेछिं। ताःहाकः क्वँय् ल्हातय् दूगु ह्युमरस, अल्ना, रेदियस व तुतिइ दूगु फिमर, तिबियाफिबुला ख। नापं पतिंया मेटाकार्पल, फ्यालिञ्जेस व तुतिपतिंया मेटाटार्सलफ्यालिञ्जेस नं ताःहाकः क्वँय् ख। ताःहाकःगु क्वँय् नं ला संकुचन जुइबिलय् थिँभःया ज्या याइ। [१]

चिहाकः क्वँय्Edit

आकारय् क्युब थें न्यागु क्वँय्‌यात चिहाकः क्वँय् धाइ। थन्यागु क्वँय्‌या हाकः, ब्या व फि ज्वलं नःगु जुइ। मनुया म्हय् दूगु चिहाकःगु क्वँय् ल्हाया कार्पस व तुतिया तार्सस ख। चिहाकःगु क्वँय् नं म्हयात स्थिरता बी व सनेत ग्वहालि याइ।[१]

पाचिगु क्वँय्Edit

पाचिगु क्वँय् धाःगु पाचिंगु व चिब्यागु क्वँय् ख। थन्यागु क्वँय् बेक्वःगु नं जुइफु। एनातोमिक कथं मनुया क्वतःया क्वँय्‌त, स्क्यापुला, स्टर्नम व बपिक्वँय् पाचिगु क्वँय् ख। पाचिगु क्वँय्‌तेसं लाधियात स्वायेगु पा व म्ह दुनेया कुचातेत रक्षा यायेगु ज्या याइ। [१]

अनाकार क्वँय्Edit

आकारया आधारय् थुये वा म्हसीके मछिंगु क्वँय्‌यात अनाकार क्वँय् धाइ। थन्यागु क्वँय्‌तेगु आकार जटिल जुइ व साधारन रुपय् परिभासित याये थाकुइ। दसुया निंतिं दुगःक्वँय् कायेछिं गुकिलिं मनुया दुगःयात रक्षा याइ। मनुया ख्वाया यक्व क्वँय् (विशेष रुपं स्य दूगु क्वँय्) अनाकार क्वँय् ख। [१]

सिसामोइद क्वँय्Edit

सिसामोइद क्वँय् धाःचु चिग्वःगु, चाकःलागु क्वँय् ख। थ्व क्वँय् आकार हाम्वःया आकारया जूगुलिं थुकियात (sesame+oid) सिसामोइद धका नां ब्युगु ख। थन्यागु क्वँय् यक्व चाप दूगु कुं नाप स्वागु तेन्दनय् बुयावइ। सेसामोइद क्वँय् नं तेन्दनय् लाइगु दबाबयात म्हो याना तेन्दनया रक्षा याइ। थन्यागु क्वँय् मनुया ज्या कथं ल्हा, तुति व पुलिइ बुयावइ। दक्वं मनुइ दइगु सेसामोइद क्वँय् पतेला ख।[१]

पिथंगु कुचाEdit

चाकःलागुEdit

 
Different types of bone markings and features.

कन्दाइल (condyle) धाःगु क्वँय्‌या च्वकाय् पिहांवःगु छगू चाकःलागु सिथ ख। थन्यागु सिथया कुचां मेगु क्वँय् नाप आर्तिकुलेसन यायेत ग्वहालि याइ। [२] इपिकोन्दाइल धाःगु कोन्दाइल नापंया छता कुचा ख, दसु ह्युमरसया मिदियल इपिकोन्दाइल। [३] थन्यागु खँग्वःत आपालं ग्रीक भासं वःगु व मेगु भासय् पाहां खँग्वःया कथं छ्यलातःगु जुइ। [४] [lower-alpha १]

चिग्वःगु पिहांवःगु कुचायात एमिनेन्स (eminence) धाइ, दसु: मिदियल एमिनेन्स। [५]

A process refers to a relatively large projection or prominent bump, [६] as does a promontory such as the sacral promontory. [७]

Both tubercle and tuberosity refer to a projection or bump with a roughened surface, with a 'tubercle' generally smaller than a 'tuberosity'. These terms are derived from Tuber, originally from the Latin "swelling" (Latin: Tuber) [८]

A ramus refers to an extension of bone, such as the ramus of the mandible in the jaw or Superior pubic ramus. Ramus is derived from "branch" (Latin: Ramus) [९] and may also be used to refer to nerves, such as the ramus communicans.

A facet refers to a small, flattened articular surface.[citation needed]

च्वामुEdit

A line refers to a long, thin projection, often with a rough surface.

Ridge and crest refer to a long, narrow line. [१०] Unlike many words used to describe anatomical terms, the word ridge is derived from Old English. [११] [lower-alpha २]

A spine, as well as referring to the spinal cord, may be used to describe a relatively long, thin projection or bump.

SpecialEdit

These terms are used to describe bony protuberances in specific parts of the body.

The Malleolus (Latin: "small hammer") is the bony prominence on each side of the ankle. [१२] These are known as the medial and lateral malleolus. Each leg is supported by two bones, the tibia on the inner side (medial) of the leg and the fibula on the outer side (lateral) of the leg. The medial malleolus is the prominence on the inner side of the ankle, formed by the lower end of the tibia. The lateral malleolus is the prominence on the outer side of the ankle, formed by the lower end of the fibula.

The trochanters are parts of the femur, to which muscles attach. [१३] It may refer to the greater, lesser, or third trochanter

CavitiesEdit

OpeningsEdit

The following terms are used to describe cavities that connect to other areas:

A foramen (/fəˈrmən/;[१४] pl. foramina, /fəˈræmənə/) is any opening, particularly referring to those in bone. [१५] Foramina inside the body of humans and other animals typically allow muscles, nerves, arteries, veins, or other structures to connect one part of the body with another.

A canal is a long, tunnel-like foramen, usually a passage for notable nerves or blood vessels.

Blind-endedEdit

The following terms are used to describe cavities that do not connect to other areas:

A fossa (/ˈfɒsə/;[१६] plural fossas /ˈfɒsəz/, or fossae (/ˈfɒs/ or /ˈfɒs/); from the Latin "fossa", ditch or trench) is a depression or hollow, usually in a bone, such as the hypophyseal fossa, the depression in the sphenoid bone.[१७]

A a meatus /mˈtəs/[१८][१९] is a short canal that opens to another part of the body. [२०] [lower-alpha ३]

A fovea (Latin: pit) is a small pit, usually on the head of a bone. The most well-known example of a fovea is the fovea centralis, a depression in the retina of the eye.

WallsEdit

The following terms are used to describe the walls of a cavity:

A labyrinth refers to the bony labyrinth and membranous labyrinth, components of the inner ear, due to their fine and complex structure. [२१]

A sinus refers to a bony cavity, usually within a the skull. [२२]

मेगु क्वँय् नापया स्वापूEdit

आर्तिकुलेसनEdit

मू पौ: जोर्नी
आर्तिकुलर प्रोसेस (articular process) नापंया क्वँय् थिगु प्रोजेक्सन।
आर्तिकुलेसन (articulation) जोर्नीइ निता वा अप्व क्वँय् स्वाइगु थाय्।
सुचर (suture) क्रेनियल क्वँय्‌ दथुया आर्तिकुलेसन।

ताःहाकः क्वँय्‌या गुणEdit

 
Gross overview of the features of long bones in a fully grown adult.

सकल गुणEdit

Bones are commonly described with the terms head, neck, shaft, body and base

The head of a bone usually refers to the proximal end of the bone. The shaft refers to the elongated sections of long bone, and the neck the segment between the head and shaft (or body). The end of the long bone opposite to the head is known as the base.

दुनेया लागाEdit

 
The epiphyseal plate is the area in which bone growth occurs after birth through endochondral ossification.
क्वँय्‌या कुचा थुइकिगु खँपु
दायाफाइसिस (diaphysis) क्वँय्‌या ताःहाकःगु, धस्वःगु मू म्ह; प्राइमरी अस्सिफिकेसन (primary ossification)या थाय्। अंग्रेजीइ shaft धका नं धाइ।
इपिफाइसिस (epiphysis) ताःहाकः क्वँय्‌या सिथया थाय्; सेकेन्दरी अस्सिफिकेसन (secondary ossification) जुइगु थाय्।
इपिफाइजियल प्लेत (epiphyseal plate) ग्रोथ प्लेत (growth plate) वा फाइसिस (physis) धका नं नांजाः। In a long bone it is a thin disc of hyaline cartilage that is positioned transversely between the epiphysis and metaphysis. In the long bones of humans, the epiphyseal plate disappears by twenty years of age.
मेताफाइसिस (metaphysis) इपिफाइसिस (epiphysis) व दायाफाइसिस (diaphysis) दथुया भाग।

Internal and externalEdit

 
Inside of the head of femur, showing surface of the bone, red and yellow bone marrow.

The cortex of a bone is used to refer to its outer layers, and medulla used to refer to the inner surface of the bone. Red marrow, in which blood is formed is present in spongy bone as well as in the medullary cavity, while the fatty yellow marrow is present primarily in the medullary cavity.[citation needed]


NotesEdit

  1. Specifically, Latin: condylus, from "knuckle" (ग्रीक: kondylos), with "epi" referring to "Upon" [४]
  2. Specifically, 'spine, crest' (Old English:hrycg) from Germanic related to the Dutch "rug" and German "Rücken" 'back'. [११]
  3. (The plural forms of "meatus" are: meatus, as a Latin form (of the fourth declension noun class, which the word belongs to); or meatuses, as a normally derived English plural; or often, and incorrectly, meati, by false analogy with the very common Latin -us/-i forms (such as alumnus/alumni), i.e., the second declension noun class.)

ReferencesEdit

This Wikipedia entry incorporates text from the freely licenced Connexions [१] edition of Anatomy & Physiology [२] text-book by OpenStax College

  1. १.० १.१ १.२ १.३ १.४ Anatomy & Physiology. Openstax college at Connexions. November 16, 2013 कथं।
  2. OED 1989, "Condyle".
  3. OED 1989, "Epicondyle".
  4. ४.० ४.१ OED 1989, "Condyle, Epicondyle, Epi-".
  5. OED 1989, "eminence".
  6. OED 1989, "process".
  7. OED 1989, "promontory".
  8. OED 1989, "Tuberous, Tubercle".
  9. OED 1989, "ramus".
  10. OED 1989, "Crest".
  11. ११.० ११.१ OED 1989, "Ridge".
  12. OED 1989, "Malleolus".
  13. OED 1989, "Trochanter".
  14. Entry "foramen" in Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary.
  15. OED 1989, "Foramen".
  16. Entry "fossa" in Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary.
  17. Venieratos D, Anagnostopoulou S, Garidou A., A new morphometric method for the sella turcica and the hypophyseal fossa and its clinical relevance.;Folia Morphol (Warsz). 2005 Nov;64(4):240-7. PMID 16425149
  18. OED 2nd edition, 1989, as /miːˈeɪtəs/.
  19. Entry "meatus" in Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary.
  20. OED 1989, "meatus".
  21. OED 1989, "labyrinth".
  22. OED 1989, "sinus".
Books
  • (1989) The Oxford English dictionary.. Oxford: Clarendon Press.