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'''छें विज्ञान''' (Architecture)
[[Image:Ac.parthenon5.jpg|thumb|250px|The [[Parthenon]] on top of the [[Acropolis]], [[Athens]], [[Greece]]]] '''Architecture''' (from [[Latin language|Latin]], ''architectura'' and ultimately from [[Greek language|Greek]], ''αρχιτεκτων'', "a master builder", from ''αρχι-'' "chief, leader" and ''τεκτων'', "builder, carpenter"){{ref|etymology}} is the [[art]] and [[science]] of [[design|designing]] [[building]]s and [[structure]]s.
 
A wider definition would include within its scope the design of the total built environment, from the macrolevel of [[town planning]], [[urban design]], and [[landscape architecture]] to the microlevel of creating [[furniture]]. Architectural design usually must address both feasibility and [[cost]] for the [[Construction|builder]], as well as function and [[aesthetics]] for the [[wiktionary:user|user]].
 
In modern usage, architecture is the [[art]] and [[discipline]] of creating an actual, or inferring an implied or apparent plan of any complex object or [[system]]. The term can be used to connote the ''implied architecture'' of abstract things such as [[music]] or [[mathematics]], the ''apparent architecture'' of natural things, such as [[geology|geological]] formations or the [[structural biology|structure of biological cells]], or explicitly ''planned architectures'' of human-made things such as [[software]], [[computers]], [[Enterprise_architecture|enterprise]]s, and [[database]]s, in addition to buildings. In every usage, an architecture may be seen as a ''subjective [[Map (mathematics)|mapping]]'' from a human perspective (that of the ''user'' in the case of abstract or physical artifacts) to the [[Element (mathematics)|elements]] or [[wikt:component|components]] of some kind of [[structure]] or system, which preserves the relationships among the elements or components.
 
Planned architecture often [[manipulation|manipulates]] [[space]], [[volume]], [[texture]], [[light]], [[shadow]], or abstract elements in order to achieve pleasing [[aesthetics]]. This distinguishes it from [[applied science]] or [[engineering]], which usually concentrate more on the functional and feasibility aspects of the design of constructions or structures.
 
In the field of building architecture, the skills demanded of an architect range from the more complex, such as for a [[hospital]] or a [[stadium]], to the apparently simpler, such as planning [[residential]] houses. Many architectural works may be seen also as cultural and political [[symbol]]s, and/or works of art. The role of the architect, though changing, has been central to the successful (and sometimes less than successful) design and implementation of pleasingly built environments in which people live.
[[Image:Table of architecture, Cyclopaedia, 1728, volume 1.jpg|thumb|right|160px|Table of architecture, ''[[Cyclopaedia]]'', 1728]]
 
==Scope==
 
According to the very earliest surviving work on the subject, [[Vitruvius]]' [[De architectura]], good buildings satisfy three core principles: ''Firmness'', ''Commodity'', and ''Delight''{{ref|elements}}; architecture can be said to be a balance and coordination among these three elements, with none overpowering the others. A modern day definition sees architecture as addressing aesthetic, structural and functional considerations. However, looked at another way, function itself is seen as encompassing all criteria, including aesthetic and psychological ones.
 
Architecture is an [[Interdisciplinarity|interdisciplinary field]], drawing upon [[mathematics]], [[science]], [[art]], [[technology]], [[social sciences]], [[politics]], [[history]], and [[philosophy]]. Vitruvius states: ''"Architecture is a science, arising out of many other sciences, and adorned with much and varied learning: by the help of which a judgement is formed of those works which are the result of other arts."'' He adds that an architect should be well versed in fields such as [[music]] and [[astronomy]]. [[Philosophy]] is a particular favourite; in fact the approach of an [[architect]] to their subject is often called their philosophy. [[Rationalism]], [[empiricism]], [[structuralism]], [[poststructuralism]], and [[phenomenology]] are some topics from philosophy that have influenced architecture.
 
===Architecture and buildings===
The difference between architecture and building is a subject matter that has engaged the attention of many. According to [[Nikolaus Pevsner]], [[Europe]]an historian of the early twentieth century, "A bicycle shed is a building, [[Lincoln Cathedral]] is a piece of architecture." This distinction, however, is not a clear one, and contemporary scholarship is showing that all buildings, cathedrals and bicycle sheds alike, are part of a single continuum that characterizes the built world.
 
Architecture is also the art of designing the built environment. Buildings, landscaping, and street designs may be used to impart both functional as well as aesthetic character to a project. Siding and roofing materials and colors may be used to enhance or blend buildings with the environment. Building features such as cornices, gables, entrances, window treatments and borders may be used to soften or enhance portions of a building. Landscaping may be used to create privacy and block direct views from or to a site and enhance buildings with colorful plants and trees. Street side features such as decorative lighting, benches, meandering walkways, and [[bicycle lane]]s may enhance a site for passersby, pedestrians, and cyclists.
 
==Architectural history==
{{main|Architectural history}}
Architecture first [[evolved]] out of the dynamics between needs (shelter, security, worship, etc.) and means (available [[building material]]s and attendant skills). Prehistoric and primitive architecture constitute this early stage. As humans progressed and knowledge began to be formalised through oral traditions and practices, architecture evolved into a [[craft]]. Here there is first a process of trial and error, and later improvisation or replication of a successful trial. What is termed [[Vernacular architecture]] continues to be produced in many parts of the world. Indeed, vernacular buildings make up most of the built world that people experience every day.
[[Image:Colosseum-2003-07-09.jpg|thumb|right|200px|The [[Colosseum]], [[Rome]], [[Italy]] is an example of Roman architecture.]]
Early human settlements were essentially [[rural]]. As surplus of production began to occur, rural societies transformed into [[urban area|urban]] ones and cities began to evolve. In many ancient civilisations such as the Egyptians' and Mesopotamians' architecture and urbanism reflected the constant engagement with the divine and the [[supernatural]], while in other ancient cultures such as [[Iran]] architecture and [[urban planning]] was used to exemplify the power of the state.
 
[[Image:Badshahi Mosque July 1 2005 pic32 by Ali Imran.jpg|thumb|left|200px|[[Badshahi Masjid]], [[Lahore]], [[Pakistan]]]]
However, the architecture and urbanism of the Classical civilisations such as the [[Ancient Greece|Greek]] and the [[Ancient Rome|Roman]] evolved from more civic ideas and new building types emerged. Architectural styles developed and texts on architecture began to be written. These became canons to be followed in important works, especially religious architecture. Some examples of canons are the works of Vitruvius, the Kaogongji of ancient [[China]] and [[Vaastu Shastra]] in ancient [[India]]. In [[Europe]] in the [[Classical antiquity|Classical]] and [[Medieval]] periods, buildings were not attributed to specific individual architects who remained anonymous. [[Guild]]s were formed by craftsmen to organise their trade. Over time the complexity of buildings and their types increased. General civil construction such as roads and bridges began to be built. Many new building types such as schools, hospitals, and recreational facilities emerged.
[[Image:Hampi1.JPG|thumb|150px|[[Hampi|Virupaksha Temple]], [[Hampi]], [[India]]]]
 
[[Islamic architecture]] has a long and complex history beginning in the seventh century [[Common Era|CE]]. Examples can be found throughout the countries that are, or were, Islamic - from [[Morocco]] and [[Spain]] to [[Turkey]], [[Iran]] and [[Pakistan]]. Other examples can be found in areas where Muslims are a minority. Islamic architecture includes mosques, madrasas, caravansarais, palaces, and mausolea of this large region.
 
With the [[Renaissance]] and its emphasis on the individual and humanity rather than religion, and with all its attendant progress and achievements, a new chapter began. Buildings were ascribed to specific architects - [[Michaelangelo]], [[Brunelleschi]], [[Leonardo da Vinci]] - and the cult of the individual had begun. But there was no dividing line between [[artist]], [[architect]] and [[engineer]], or any of the related vocations. At this stage, it was still possible for an artist to design a bridge as the level of structural calculations involved was within the scope of the generalist.
 
With the consolidation of knowledge in scientific fields such as [[engineering]] and the rise of new materials and technology, the architect began to lose ground on the technical aspects of building. He therefore cornered for himself another playing field - that of [[aesthetics]]. There was the rise of the "gentleman architect" who usually dealt with wealthy clients and concentrated predominantly on visual qualities derived usually from historical prototypes. In the 19th century [[Ecole des Beaux Arts]] in [[France]], the training was toward producing quick sketch schemes involving beautiful drawings without much emphasis on context.
 
Meanwhile, the [[Industrial Revolution]] laid open the door for mass consumption and aesthetics started becoming a criterion even for the middle class as ornamented products, once within the province of expensive craftsmanship, became cheaper under machine production.
 
[[Image:Bauhaus.JPG|thumb|left|250px|[[Bauhaus]] building, [[Dessau]], [[Germany]]]]The dissatisfaction with such a general situation at the turn of the twentieth century gave rise to many new lines of thought that in architecture served as precursors to [[Modern Architecture]]. Notable among these is the [[Deutscher Werkbund]], formed in 1907 to produce better quality machine made objects. The rise of the profession of [[industrial design]] is usually placed here. Following this lead, the [[Bauhaus]] school, founded in [[Germany]] in 1919, consciously rejected [[history]] and looked at architecture as a synthesis of art, craft, and technology.
 
When Modern architecture was first practiced, it was an [[avant-garde]] movement with moral, philosophical, and aesthetic underpinnings. Modernist Architects sought to "strip down" buildings to their pure form. Classical columns and decorations were dubbed unnecessary, in favor simple steel and glass cages, seen as beautiful in their own right. It was during this shift that the phrase, "Less is more" was coined by [[Mies van der Rohe]], one of the Fathers of the Modernist movement.
 
Many people saw Modernism as dull or even ugly. [[Postmodernism]] developed as a reaction. [[Robert Venturi]]'s contention that a "decorated shed" (an ordinary building which is functionally designed inside and embellished on the outside) was better than a "duck" (a building in which the whole form and its function are tied together) gives an idea of this approach.
 
Another part of the profession, and also some non-architects, responded by going to what they considered the root of the problem. They felt that architecture was not a personal philosophical or aesthetic pursuit by individualists; rather it had to consider everyday needs of people and use technology to give a livable environment. The [[Design Methodology Movement]] involving people such as [[Chris Jones(design)|Chris Jones]], [[Christopher Alexander]] started searching for more people-orientated designs. Extensive studies on areas such as behavioural, environmental, and social sciences were done and started informing the design process.
 
As many other concerns began to be recognised and complexity of buildings began to increase in terms of aspects such as services, architecture started becoming more multi-disciplinary than ever. Architecture now required a team of professionals in its making, an architect being one among the many, sometimes the leader, sometimes not. This is the state of the profession today. However, individuality is still cherished and sought for in the design of buildings seen as cultural symbols - the museum or fine arts centre has become a showcase for new experiments in style: today one style, tomorrow maybe something else.
 
[[Image:FallingwaterWright.jpg|left|thumb|[[Frank Lloyd Wright]]'s Famous "[[Fallingwater]]"]]
[[Image:Wawka2.jpg|thumb|right|Modern architecture in [[Warsaw]]]]
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==References==
#{{note|etymology}} [http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?term=architect Online Etymology of the term "architect"]
#{{note|elements}} Translation of ''firmitatis utilitatis venustatis'' [http://penelope.uchicago.edu/Thayer/L/Roman/Texts/Vitruvius/home.html] due to Henry Wotton, 1624 [http://www.gardenvisit.com/landscape/LIH/history/vitruvius.htm#ch1-3].
 
==See also==
[[image:architecture.swiss.re.arp.750pix.jpg|thumb|right|250px|Four architectural styles in [[London]], [[England]], including the [[30 St Mary Axe|Gherkin]]. In 2004 this building won the [[RIBA Stirling Prize]] for its architects [[Foster and Partners]] ]]
{{commonscat|Architecture by country}}
{{Wikibookspar|Wikiversity|School of Architecture}}
{|
|-
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* [[Architect]]
* [[Architectural endoscopy]]
* [[Architectural history]]
* [[Architectural mythology]]
* [[Architectural style]]
<!--PLEASE ENTER ALL (FUTURE) STYLES ON THE 'ARCHITECTURAL STYLE' PAGE IN ITS ALPHABETICAL SEQUENCE-->
* [[Architectural glossary]]
* [[Architectural theory]]
** [[Architecture Description Language]]
** [[Mathematics and architecture]]
** [[Pattern language]]
** [[Proportion (architecture)]]
** [[Space syntax]]
* [[Portal:Architecture/Selected picture archive|Architecture selected pictures]]
* [[Architecture parlante]]
* [[Architecture timeline]]
* [[Australian architectural styles]]
* [[Bachelor of Architecture]]
* [[Building code]]
* [[Building construction]]
* [[Building design]]
* [[Building material]]
* [[Buildings and architecture of New York City]]
* [[Canadian architecture]]
|valign="top"|
* [[Environmental design]]
* Energy efficient building ([[Green building]])
* [[Forms in architecture]]
* [[Interior design]]
* [[Islamic Architecture]]
* [[Landscape architecture]]
* [[List of architects]]
* [[List of architecture firms]]
* [[List of architecture prizes]]
** [[Pritzker Prize]]
** [[RIBA Stirling Prize]]
** [[Aga Khan Award]]
* [[List of buildings]]
* [[List of concert halls]]
* [[Skyscraper]]
* [[Spanish architecture]]
* [[Structural engineering]]
* [[Sustainable design]]
* [[Sustainable architecture]]
* [[Temple architecture]]
* [[Urban Design]]
* [[Urban planning]]
* [[World Heritage Sites]]
|}
 
== External links ==
*[http://www.arounder.eu - Tolomeus - Art around you] Architecture VR panoramas by Tolomeus
[[Image:Chryslerbldg.jpg|thumb|right|100px|[[Chrysler Building]], [[New York City]], [[USA]]]]
 
* Architectural Practice Directories
**[http://www.architectsindex.com/ ArchitectsIndex - Directory of UK Architects along with work examples]
 
* Reference
**[http://www.archinect.com/ Archinect - Architecture news, jobs, discussions, features, etc. Updated daily since 1997]
**[http://www.archinform.net/ Archinform - International Architecture Database]
**[http://www.architecture.com/ Architecture.com - Courtesy of the Royal Institute of British Architects]
**[http://www.architypes.net/ Architypes - Wiki of architecture design principles and patterns]
**[http://www.archpedia.com/ Archpedia - architecture encyclopedia]
**[http://www.thehopkinscompany.com/glossary/glossary.html Glossary of Architecture - Residential]
**[http://www.danda.be/ Danda - News and reviews on architecture]
**[http://www.reluct.com/ RE. Design and architecture news]
**[http://www.archiquotes.info/ ArchiQuotes - Gallery of Architectural Quotations]
**[http://www.territorioscuola.com/tsodp/dmoz.php3?browse=/Arts/Architecture TerritorioScuola ODP - Architecture Resources]
 
* Professional organizations
**[http://www.aia.org/ American Institute of Architects]
**[http://www.architects.org/ Boston Society of Architects]
**[http://www.nzia.co.nz/ New Zealand Institute of Architects]
**[http://www.pritzkerprize.com/ The Pritzker Architecture Prize]
**[http://www.architecture.com.au/ Royal Australian Institute of Architects]
**[http://www.riba.org/ Royal Institute of British Architects]
**[http://www.sah.org/ Society of Architectural Historians]
**[http://www.sahanz.net/ Society of Architectural Historians Australia and New Zealand]
**[http://www.architects.org.il/ Architects' Association of Israel]
 
* Buildings and structures (''refer to'' : [[:Category:Buildings and structures]])
**[http://content.lib.washington.edu/buildingsweb/index.html Cities and Buildings Database - From the University of Washington]
**[http://www.cupola.com/bldgstr1.htm Cupola - Building and Structure Photo Galleries]
**[http://www.emporis.com/en/ Emporis Buildings - Free Building Database]
**[http://www.galinsky.com/ Galinsky - People enjoying buildings worldwide]
**[http://www.glasssteelandstone.com/ Global Architecture Encyclopedia - Glass Steel and Stone]
**[http://www.greatbuildings.com/ Great Buildings Collection]
**[http://www.vitruvio.ch/ Vitruvio]
 
* Regional architectures
**[http://www.geocities.com/medit1976/index.htm Barcelona Architecture - Catalan architecture and catalan architects]
**[http://content.lib.washington.edu/dearmassarweb/index.html University of Washington Libraries Digital Collections – Dearborn-Massar Photographs] Over 1200 images chosen from a group of approximately 6000 photographic prints representing the work of some of the most well known architects in the Pacific Northwest.
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