फ्रान्सिस्को गोया: Difference between revisions

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| works = ''[[La maja desnuda]]'', ca. 1800<br />''[[La maja vestida]]'', ca. 1803<br />
''[[The Second of May 1808]]'', 1814<br />
''[[The Third of May 1808]]'', 1814<br />
La familia de Carlos IV, 1798<br />
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'''फ्रान्सिस्को गोया''' [[इस्पान्योल भाषा]]:'''Francisco José de Goya y Lucientes''' ([[मार्च ३०]], [[१७४६]] &ndash; [[अप्रिल १६]], [[१८२८]]) छम्ह [[एरागोन]]मि [[स्पेन|स्पेनमि]] [[चित्रकला|चित्रकलामि]] व [[प्रिन्टमेकिङ|प्रिन्तमेकर]] ख। Goya was a court painter to the Spanish Crown and a chronicler of history. He has been regarded both as the last of the [[Old Master]]s and as the first of the moderns. The subversive and subjective element in his art, as well as his bold handling of paint, provided a model for the work of later generations of artists, notably [[Édouard Manet|Manet]] and [[Pablo Picasso|Picasso]].<ref>[http://www1.uol.com.br/bienal/23bienal/especial/iego.htm Goya and Modernism, Bienal Internacional de São Paulo] Retrieved 27 July, 2007.</ref>
== Biography ==
=== Youth ===
Goya was born in [[Fuendetodos, Spain]], in the kingdom of [[Aragón]] in 1746 to José Benito de Goya y Franque and Gracia de Lucientes y Salvador. He spent his childhood in Fuendetodos, where his family lived in a house bearing the [[family crest]] of his mother. His father earned his living as a [[gilding|gilder]]. About 1749, the family bought a house in the city of [[Zaragoza]] and some years later moved into it. Goya attended school at Escuelas Pias, where he formed a close friendship with [[Martin Zapater]], and their correspondence over the years became valuable material for biographies of Goya. At age 14, he entered apprenticeship with the painter José Luján.
<!-- Image with unknown copyright status removed: [[Image:Goya's Birth House.JPG|right|thumb|225px|Goya's birthplace in Fuendetodos.]] -->
He then journeyed to Rome, where in 1771 he won second prize in a painting competition organized by the City of [[Parma]]. Later that year, he returned to Zaragoza and painted a part of the cupola of the [[Basilica of Our Lady of the Pillar|Basilica of the Pillar]], frescoes of the oratory of the cloisters of Aula Dei, and the frescoes of the Sobradiel Palace. He studied with [[Francisco Bayeu y Subías]] and his painting began to show signs of the delicate tonalities for which he became famous.
[[Imageकिपा:Francisco de Goya y Lucientes 023.jpg|left|thumb|275px|''[[The Third of May 1808]]'', 1814. Oil on canvas, 266 х 345 cm. [[Museo del Prado]], Madrid.]]
=== Maturity and success ===
Goya married Bayeu's sister [[Josefa Bayeu|Josefa]] in 1774. His marriage to Josefa (he nicknamed her "Pepa"), and Francisco Bayeu's membership of the [[Real Academia de Bellas Artes de San Fernando|Royal Academy of Fine Art]] (from the year 1765) helped him to procure work with the Royal Tapestry Workshop. There, over the course of five years, he designed some 42 patterns, many of which were used to decorate (and insulate) the bare stone walls of [[El Escorial]] and the [[Palacio Real de El Pardo]], the newly built residences of the Spanish monarchs. This brought his artistic talents to the attention of the Spanish monarchs who later would give him access to the royal court. He also painted a canvas for the altar of the Church of San Francisco El Grande, which led to his appointment as a member of the [[Real Academia de Bellas Artes de San Fernando|Royal Academy of Fine Art]].
After the death of Charles III in 1788 and revolution in France in 1789, during the reign of [[Charles IV of Spain|Charles IV]], Goya reached his peak of popularity with royalty.<ref>''Galeria de Arte transparencias Ancora A Todo Color'' 1961 Goya biography from the [[Museo del Prado]]. As quoted on [http://eeweems.com/goya/1961_prado_bio.html eeweems.com]</ref>
=== ''Caprichos'' ===
After contracting a high fever in 1792 Goya was left deaf, and he became withdrawn and introspective. During the five years he spent recuperating, he read a great deal about the French Revolution and its philosophy. The bitter series of [[aquatint]]ed [[etching]]s that resulted were published in 1799 under the title ''[[Caprichos]]''. The dark visions depicted in these prints are partly explained by his caption, "The sleep of reason produces monsters". Yet these are not solely bleak in nature and demonstrate the artist's sharp satirical wit, particularly evident in etchings such as ''Hunting for Teeth''. Additionally, one can discern a thread of the macabre running through Goya's work, even in his earlier tapestry cartoons.
[[Imageकिपा:Francisco de Goya y Lucientes 054.jpg|thumb|right|275px|''The Family of Charles IV'', 1800. [[Théophile Gautier]] described the figures as looking like "the corner baker and his wife after they won the lottery".<ref>Chocano, Carina. "[http://www.latimes.com/entertainment/news/movies/cl-et-goya20jul20,1,399263.story?ctrack=1&cset=true Goya's Ghosts]". ''Los Angeles Times'', [[July 20]], [[2007]]. Retrieved on [[January 18]], [[2008]].</ref>]]
=== Painter of royalty ===
In 1786 Goya was appointed painter to Charles III, and in 1789 was made court painter to Charles IV. In 1799 he was appointed First Court Painter with a salary of 50,000 reales and 500 ducats for a coach. He worked on the cupola of the Hermitage of San Antonio de la Florida; he painted the King and the Queen, royal family pictures, portraits of the [[Manuel de Godoy|Prince of the Peace]] and many other nobles. His portraits are notable for their disinclination to flatter, and in the case of ''The Family of Charles IV'', the lack of visual diplomacy is remarkable.<ref>Licht, Fred: ''Goya: The Origins of the Modern Temper in Art'', page 68. Universe Books, 1979. "Even if one takes into consideration the fact that Spanish portraiture is often realistic to the point of eccentricity, Goya's portrait still remains unique in its drastic description of human bankruptcy".</ref>
Goya received orders from many friends within the [[Spanish nobility]]. Among those from whom he procured portrait commissions were [[Pedro de Álcantara Téllez-Girón, 9th Duke of Osuna]] and his wife [[María Josefa de la Soledad, 9th Duchess of Osuna]], [[María del Pilar Teresa Cayetana de Silva Alvarez de Toledo, 13th Duchess of Alba]] (universally known simply as the "Duchess of Alba"), and her husband [[José Alvarez de Toledo y Gonzaga, 13th Duke of Alba]], and [[María Ana de Pontejos y Sandoval, Marchioness of Pontejos]].
=== Later years ===
[[Imageकिपा:Saturno devorando a sus hijos.jpg|left|thumb|140px|''[[Saturn Devouring His Son]]'', 1819. The title, like all those given to the ''Black Paintings'', was assigned by others after Goya's death.]]
As French forces invaded Spain during the [[Peninsular War]] (1808–1814), the new Spanish court received him as had its predecessors.
Goya painted the Spanish royal family, including [[Charles IV of Spain]] and [[Ferdinand VII of Spain|Ferdinand VII]]. His themes range from merry festivals for [[tapestry]], draft cartoons, to scenes of war and corpses. This evolution reflects the darkening of his temper. Modern physicians suspect that the lead in his pigments poisoned him and caused his [[post-lingual hearing impairment|deafness]] since 1792. Near the end of his life, he became reclusive and produced frightening and obscure paintings of insanity, madness, and fantasy. The style of these ''[[Black Paintings]]'' prefigure the [[Expressionism|expressionist]] movement. He often painted himself into the foreground.
=== The Maja ===
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Two of Goya's best known paintings are [[La Maja Desnuda|''The Nude Maja'' (''La maja desnuda'')]] and [[La Maja Vestida|''The Clothed Maja'' (''La maja vestida]]''). They depict the same woman in the same pose, naked and clothed, respectively. He painted ''La maja vestida'' after outrage in Spanish society over the previous ''Desnuda''.{{Fact|date=March 2008}} Without a pretense to allegorical or mythological meaning, the painting was "the first totally profane life-size female nude in Western art".<ref>Licht, Fred, page 83, 1979.</ref> He refused to paint clothes on her, and instead created a new painting.
The identity of the ''Majas'' is uncertain. The most popularly cited subjects are the Duchess of Alba, with whom Goya is thought to have had an affair, and the mistress of [[Manuel de Godoy]], who subsequently owned the paintings. Neither theory has been verified, and it remains as likely that the paintings represent an idealized composite.<ref>[http://museoprado.mcu.es/imajas.html The Clothed Maja and the Nude Maja, the Prado] Retrieved 27 July, 2007.</ref> In 1808 all Godoy's property was seized by Ferdinand VI after his fall from power and exile, and in 1813 the [[Inquisition]] confiscated both works as 'obscene', returning them in 1836.<ref>''Museo del Prado, Catálogo de las pinturas'', 1996, p. 138, Ministerio de Educación y Cultura, Madrid, ISBN 848731753784-87317-53-7</ref>
=== Darker realms ===
In a period of convalescence during 1793–1794, Goya completed a set of eleven small pictures painted on tin; the pictures known as ''Fantasy and Invention'' mark a significant change in his art. These paintings no longer represent the world of popular carnival, but rather a dark, dramatic realm of fantasy and nightmare. ''Courtyard with Lunatics'' is a horrifying and imaginary vision of loneliness, fear and social alienation, a departure from the rather more superficial treatment of mental illness in the works of earlier artists such as [[William Hogarth|Hogarth]].
In this painting, the ground, sealed by masonry blocks and iron gate, is occupied by patients and a single warden. The patients are variously staring, sitting, posturing, wrestling, grimacing or disciplining themselves. The top of the picture vanishes with sunlight, emphasizing the nightmarish scene below.
In ''[[The Third of May 1808|The Third of May, 1808: The Execution of the Defenders of Madrid]]'', Goya attempted to "perpetuate by the means of his brush the most notable and heroic actions of our glorious insurrection against the Tyrant of Europe"<ref>Francisco Goya, quoted at [http://www.artchive.com/artchive/G/goya/may_3rd.jpg.html Artchive].</ref> The painting does not show an incident that Goya witnessed; rather it was meant as more abstract commentary.
=== ''Black Paintings'' and ''The Disasters'' ===
In later life Goya bought a house, called ''Quinta del Sordo'' ("Deaf Man's House"), and painted many unusual paintings on canvas and on the walls, including references to witchcraft and war. One of these is the famous work ''Saturn Devouring His Sons'' (known informally in some circles as ''Devoration'' or ''Saturn Eats His Child''), which displays a [[Classical mythology|Greco-Roman]] [[mythological]] scene of the god [[Saturn (mythology)|Saturn]] consuming a child, a reference to Spain's ongoing civil conflicts. Moreover, the painting has been seen as ''"the most essential to our understanding of the human condition in modern times, just as [[Michelangelo]]'s [[Sistine Chapel ceiling|Sistine]] ceiling is essential to understanding the tenor of the 16th century"''.<ref>Licht, Fred, page 167, 1979.</ref>
[[Imageकिपा:Goya-Guerra (33).jpg|thumb|left|300px|''What more can one do?'', from ''The Disasters of War'', 1812-15.]]
This painting is one of 14 in a series known as the ''[[Black Paintings]]''. After his death the wall paintings were transferred to canvas and remain some of the best examples of the later period of Goya's life when, deafened and driven half-mad by what was probably an [[encephalitis]] of some kind, he decided to free himself from painterly strictures of the time and paint whatever nightmarish visions came to him. Many of these works are in the [[Prado]] museum in [[Madrid]].
In the 1810s, Goya created a set of aquatint prints titled [[Commons:Los desastres de la guerra|''The Disasters of War (Los desastres de la guerra]]'') which depict scenes from the [[Peninsular War]]. The scenes are singularly disturbing, sometimes macabre in their depiction of battlefield horror, and represent an outraged conscience in the face of death and destruction. The prints were not published until 1863, 35 years after Goya's death.
=== Questions of authenticity ===
The findings of research published since 2003 have raised questions regarding the authenticity of some of Goya's late works. One study claims that the ''Black Paintings'' were applied to walls that did not exist in Goya's home before he left for France. <ref>[http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9C0DEED61F3CF934A15754C0A9659C8B63&sec=&spon=&pagewanted=2 NY Times Magazine article dated 27 July, 2003 by Arthur Lubow]</ref> <ref>''Black Paintings of Goya'' by Juan Jose Junquera ISBN 18575927351-85759-273-5</ref>
In 2008 the [[Prado Museum]] reverted the traditional attribution of [[The Colossus (Goya)|The Colossus]], and expressed doubts over the authenticity of three other paintings attributed to Goya as well.<ref>[http://www.infoniac.com/offbeat-news/goya-iconic-painting-not-created-by-genius.html]Goya's Iconic Painting Not Created by the Genius?</ref>
== Cinema, drama and opera ==
[[Imageकिपा:GoyaBordeaux.jpg|thumb|right|170px|Remembrance plaque for Goya in Bordeaux]]
[[Enrique Granados]] composed a piano suite ([[1911 in music|1911]]) and later an [[opera]] ([[1916 in music|1916]]), both called ''[[Goyescas]]'', inspired by the artist's paintings. [[Gian Carlo Menotti]] wrote a biographical opera about him titled ''[[Goya (opera)|Goya]]'' (1986), commissioned by [[Plácido Domingo]], who originated the role; this production has been presented on [[television]]. Goya also inspired [[Michael Nyman]]'s opera ''[[Facing Goya]]'' (2000), and Goya is the central character in [[Clive Barker]]'s play ''Colossus'' (1995).
In 1988 American [[musical theatre]] composer [[Maury Yeston]] released a studio cast album of his own musical, ''[[Goya: A Life In Song]]'', in which Plácido Domingo again starred as Goya.
== See also ==
* [[List of works by Francisco Goya]]
* [[History of painting]]
* [[Western painting]]
== Notes ==
[[Imageकिपा:Goya prado.jpg|thumb|right|200px|A statue of Francisco Goya outside the main entrance of The [[Prado]] Museum in [[Madrid]].]]
== Sources ==
* John J. Ciofalo, ''The Self-Portraits of Francisco Goya.'' Cambridge University Press, 2001
* ''Goya'' (a biographical novel) by [[Lion Feuchtwanger]] ISBN 84-7640-883-8
* [http://eeweems.com/goya/index.html eeweems.com] Goya images, biography and resources
== External links ==
{{Commons|Francisco de Goya y Lucientes}}
<!-- ATTENTION! Please do not add links without discussion and consensus on the talk page. Undiscussed links will be removed.-->
* [http://eeweems.com/goya/index.html Goya images, biography and resources]
* [http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0455957/ ''Goyas Ghosts'' 2006 film]
* [http://www.franciscodegoya.net www.franciscodegoya.net] 164 works by Francisco de Goya
* Goya's Deafness in Art History[http://idea3.rit.edu/paddhd/publicDA/main/articles/TactileMind/GoyasDeafnessinArtHistory.htm]
* [http://www.all-art.org/history372-5.html Francisco de Goya at all-art.org]
* [http://biography.free-people.net/paintings-francisco-goya.php Biography and Paintings of Francisco Goya]
* [http://www.ricci-art.com/en/Francisco-Goya-(de).htm Paintings by Francisco Goya)]
* {{PDFlink|[http://www.gasl.org/refbib/Goya__Caprichos.pdf ''Caprichos'']|10.0&nbsp;[[Mebibyte|MiB]]<!-- application/pdf, 10551971 bytes -->}} (PDF in the [http://www.gasl.org/as/referenz Arno Schmidt Reference Library])
* {{PDFlink|[http://www.gasl.org/refbib/Goya__Guerra.pdf ''Desastres de la guerra'']|10.6&nbsp;[[Mebibyte|MiB]]<!-- application/pdf, 11169231 bytes -->}} (PDF in the [http://www.gasl.org/as/referenz Arno Schmidt Reference Library])
* [http://www.all-art.org/neoclasscism/goya_caprichos1.html ''Caprichos'' at all-art.org]
* [http://www.all-art.org/neoclasscism/goya_war1.html ''Disasters of War'' at all-art.org]
* [http://www.all-art.org/neoclasscism/disparates1.html ''Disparates'' at all-art.org]
* [http://www.all-art.org/neoclasscism/goya_tauromaquia1.html ''Tauromaquia'' at all-art.org]
* [http://www.npg.si.edu/exhibit/curex1.htm#legacy Smithsonian Institution exhibit “Legacy: Spain and the United States in the Age of Independence, 1763-1848”, Sept. 27, 2007–Feb. 10, 2008]
* [http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Francisco_Goya Paintings in Wikimedia Commons]
* [http://ccdl.libraries.claremont.edu/col/fgp/ Francisco Goya Prints], a [[Claremont Colleges Digital Library]] collection from the [[Pomona College]] Museum of Art
'''Articles and essays'''
* The Sleep of Reason [http://litmed.med.nyu.edu/Annotation?action=view&annid=12796]
* [http://www.worldandi.com/newhome/public/2004/february/bkpub1.asp ''The Sleep of Reason'' - article in World&I Magazine]
* [http://www.signandsight.com/features/271.html ''Goya's ghouls''] on the Goya's "Don't forget the happiness of Goya!" exhibition in Berlin
* [http://www.theartwolf.com/goya_black_paintings.htm Francisco de Goya's ''Black paintings'']
* [http://www.pyreneesguide.com/articles.asp?cID=56&sID=395&aID=1199 Goya and his work in Aragon]
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{{वास्तुशास्त्री, शील्पकार व चित्रकार}}
[[Category:Francisco Goya| Goya, Francisco]]
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