Difference between revisions of "भाय्"

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[[Image:Surfacegyri.jpg|thumb|Some of the areas of the brain involved in language processing: [[Broca's area]], [[Wernicke's area]], [[Supramarginal gyrus]], [[Angular gyrus]], [[Primary Auditory Cortex]]]]
'''भाय्''' (अंग्रेजी: Language) धागु मनु यागु विचा हिलेगु छगु माध्यम ख:| भाये यात अप्प्व याना म्हुतु व कथु न पिकायिगु स या ग्वालिं छ्येले ज्या जुइ| तर भाय् यात च्वया व सांकेतिक तव नं छ्येले ज्यु| भाय् मनु यु दक्ले तधंगु आविस्कारले छगु ख| भाय् या छ्येले ज्या मेगु प्राणीले न दुगु तथ्य थौं कन्हे या मालेज्या (एक्स्पेरिमेन्ट्स्)तेसं क्येनी|
भाय् यागु वैज्ञानिक ब्वनेजा यात भाय् विज्ञान (अंग्रेजी: Linguistics) धाई |
== ईतिहास ==
भाय् या ईतिहास मनु यागु ईतिहास ति हे पुलांगु जुइ फु। थ्व छगु मनु यागु आवस्यकता नं दया वगु आविष्कार ख:|
'''भाय्''' (अंग्रेजी: Language) धागु मनु यागु विचा हिलेगु छगु माध्यम ख:| भाये यात अप्प्व याना म्हुतु व कथु न पिकायिगु स या ग्वालिं छ्येले ज्या जुइ| तर भाय् यात च्वया व सांकेतिक तव नं छ्येले ज्यु| भाय् मनु यु दक्ले तधंगु आविस्कारले छगु ख| भाय् या छ्येले ज्या मेगु प्राणीले न दुगु तथ्य थौं कन्हे या मालेज्या (एक्स्पेरिमेन्ट्स्)तेसं क्येनी|
भाय् यागु वैज्ञानिक ब्वनेजा यात भाय् विज्ञान (अंग्रेजी: Linguistics) धाई |
== ईतिहास ==
भाय् या ईतिहास मनु यागु ईतिहास ति हे पुलांगु जुइ फु। थ्व छगु मनु यागु आवस्यकता नं दया वगु आविष्कार ख:|
A '''language''' is a system of arbitary signals, such as voice sounds, gestures or written symbols which communicate thoughts or feelings.
[[Human]] spoken and written languages can be described as a [[system]] of [[symbol]]s (sometimes known as [[lexeme]]s) and the [[grammar]]s ([[wiktionary:rule|rule]]s) by which the symbols are manipulated. The word "language" is also used to refer to common properties of languages.
Language learning is normal in human childhood. Most human languages use patterns of [[sound]] or [[gesture]] for symbols which enable [[communication]] with others around them. There are thousands of human languages, and these seem to share certain properties, even though many shared properties have exceptions.
There is [[Dialect#.22Dialect.22_or_.22language.22|no defined line]] between a language and a [[dialect]], but [[Max Weinreich]] is credited as saying that [[Language-dialect aphorism|a language is a dialect with an army and a navy]]. <!-- this in-joke needs explanation for many readers -->
Humans and computer programs have also constructed other languages, including [[Constructed language|constructed languages]] such as [[Esperanto]], [[Ido]], [[Interlingua]], [[Klingon language|Klingon]], programming languages, and various mathematical formalisms. These languages are not necessarily restricted to the properties shared by human languages.
==Properties of language==
Languages are not just sets of symbols. They also often conform to a rough [[grammar]], or system of rules, used to manipulate the symbols. While a set of symbols may be used for expression or communication, it is primitive and relatively unexpressive, because there are no clear or regular relationships between the symbols. <!-- uh? how can a language manipulate symbols? Because a language also often has a grammar, it can manipulate its symbols to express clear and regular relationships between them. -->
For example, imagine going on a walk with a person who only knows individual symbols. If you saw a dog, he might say, "Dog not scare" or "Not scare dog". Although any <!--?--> English speaker would have some notion of what he was talking about, the relationship between the words is unclear. Is he scared of dogs? Or just that dog? Or does he want to scare the dog off? Does he think the dog is scared? But if you respond, "I'm not scared of dogs", the relationship between "dog" and "scare" is quite apparent and hence the meaning of the utterance.
<!-- added some Nots to show what a poor example this is -->
Another property of language is the arbitrariness of the symbols. Any symbol can be mapped onto any concept (or even onto one of the rules of the grammar). For instance, there is nothing about the [[Spanish language|Spanish]] word ''{{lang|es|nada}}'' itself that forces Spanish speakers to use it to mean ''nothing''. That is the meaning all Spanish speakers have memorized for that sound pattern. But for [[Croatian language|Croatian]] speakers ''{{lang|hr|nada}}'' means "hope".
However, it must be understood that just because in principle the symbols are arbitrary does not mean that a language cannot have symbols that are iconic of what they stand for. Words such as "meow" sound similar to what they represent (see [[Onomatopoeia]]), but they could be replaced with words such as "jarn", and as long as everyone memorized the new word, the same concepts could be expressed with it.
==Human languages==
{{main|Natural language}}
Human languages are usually referred to as natural languages, and the science studying them is [[linguistics]].
Making a principled distinction between one '''language''' and another is usually impossible. For instance, there are a few [[dialect]]s of [[German language|German]] similar to some dialects of [[Dutch language|Dutch]]. The transition between languages within the same [[language family]] is usually gradual (see [[dialect continuum]]).
Some like to make parallels with [[biology]], where it is not always possible to make a well-defined distinction between one [[species]] and the next. In either case, the ultimate difficulty may stem from the [[interaction]]s between languages and [[population]]s. (See [[Dialect]] or [[August Schleicher]] for a longer discussion.)
The concepts of [[Ausbausprache]], [[Abstandsprache]], and [[Dachsprache]] are used to make finer [[distinction]]s about the degrees of difference between languages or dialects.
===Origins of human language===
{{main|Origin of language}}
No one yet agrees on when language was first used by humans (or their ancestors). Estimates range from about two million (2,000,000) years ago, during the time of ''[[Homo habilis]]'', to as recently as forty thousand (40,000) years ago, during the time of [[Cro-Magnon]] man.
===Language taxonomy===
The [[Taxonomic classification|classification]] of natural languages can be performed on the basis of different underlying principles (different closeness notions, respecting different properties and relations between languages); important directions of present classifications are:
* paying attention to the historical evolution of languages results in a genetic classification of languages&mdash;which is based on genetic relatedness of languages,
* paying attention to the internal structure of languages ([[grammar]]) results in a typological classification of languages&mdash;which is based on similarity of one or more components of the language's grammar across languages,
* and respecting geographical closeness and contacts between language-speaking communities results in areal groupings of languages.
The different classifications do not match each other and are not expected to, but the correlation between them is an important point for many [[linguistics|linguistic]] research works. (There is a parallel to the classification of [[species]] in biological [[phylogenetics]] here: consider [[monophyletic]] vs. [[polyphyletic]] groups of species.)
The task of genetic classification belongs to the field of [[historical-comparative linguistics]], of typological&mdash;to [[linguistic typology]].
See also [[Taxonomy]], and [[Taxonomic classification]] for the general idea of classification and taxonomies.
====Genetic classification====
{{main|Language family}}
The world's languages have been grouped into families of languages that are believed to have common ancestors. Some of the major families are the [[Indo-European languages]], the [[Afro-Asiatic languages]], the [[Austronesian languages]], and the [[Sino-Tibetan languages]].
The shared features of languages from one family can be due to shared ancestry. (Compare with [[homology (biology)|homology]] in biology.)
====Typological classification====
{{main|Linguistic typology}}
An example of a typological classification is the classification of languages on the basis of the basic order of the [[verb]], the [[subject (grammar)|subject]] and the [[object (grammar)|object]] in a [[sentence (linguistics)|sentence]] into several types: [[SVO language|SVO]], [[SOV language|SOV]], [[VSO language|VSO]], and so on, languages. ([[English language|English]], for instance, belongs to the [[SVO language]] type.)
The shared features of languages of one type (= from one typological class) may have arisen completely independently. (Compare with [[analogy (biology)|analogy]] in biology.) Their cooccurence might be due to the universal laws governing the structure of natural languages&mdash;[[language universal]]s.
====Areal classification====
The following language groupings can serve as some linguistically significant examples of areal linguistic units, or ''[[sprachbund]]s'': [[Balkan linguistic union]], or the bigger group of [[European languages]]; [[Caucasian languages]]. Although the members of each group are not closely [[genetic relatedness of languages|genetically related]], there is a reason for them to share similar features, namely: their speakers have been in contact for a long time within a common community and the languages ''converged'' in the course of the history. These are called "[[areal feature (linguistics)|areal feature]]s".
N.B.: one should be careful about the underlying classification principle for groups of languages which have apparently a geographical name: besides areal linguistic units, the [[taxa]] of the genetic classification ([[language family|language families]]) are often given names which themselves or parts of which refer to geographical areas.
===Constructed languages===
{{main|Constructed language}}
Some individuals have constructed their own artificial languages, for practical, experimental, personal, or ideological reasons. For example, one prominent [[artificial language]], [[Esperanto]], was created by [[L. L. Zamenhof]] as a compilation of various elements of different languages, and was intended to be an easy-to-learn language for people familiar with similar languages. Other constructed languages strive to be more logical ("loglangs") than natural languages; a prominent example of this is [[Lojban]].
Some writers, such as [[J. R. R. Tolkien]], and [[Christopher Paolini]], have created fantasy languages, for literary, [[Artistic language|artistic]], or personal reasons.
==The study of language==
The oldest surviving written grammar for any language is believed to be the ''[[Tolkāppiyam]]'' (தொல்காப்பியம்), a book on the grammar of the [[Tamil language]], written around [[200 BC|200 BC]] by Tolkāppiyar. Its classification of the alphabet into [[consonant]]s and [[vowel]] was a breakthrough.
The historical record of the study of language begins in [[North India]] with [[Pāṇini]], the [[5th century BC]] grammarian who formulated 3,959 rules of [[Sanskrit language|Sanskrit]] [[morphology (linguistics)|morphology]], known as the ''{{Unicode|[[Aṣṭādhyāyī]]}}'' (अष्टाध्यायी). {{Unicode|Pāṇini’s}} grammar is highly systematized and technical. Inherent in its analytic approach are the concepts of the [[phoneme]], the [[morpheme]], and the [[Root (linguistics)|root]]; the phoneme was only recognized by Western linguists some two millennia later.
In the [[Middle East]], the [[Persian language|Persian]] linguist [[Sibawayh]] made a detailed and professional description of [[Arabic language|Arabic]] in 760 CE in his monumental work, ''Al-kitab fi al-nahw'' (الكتاب في النحو, ''The Book on Grammar''), bringing many [[Linguistics|linguistic]] aspects of language to light. In his book he distinguished [[phonetics]] from [[phonology]].
Later in the West, the success of [[science]], [[mathematics]], and other [[formal system]]s in the 20th century led many to attempt a formalization of the study of language as a "semantic code". This resulted in the [[academic discipline]] of [[linguistics]], the founding of which is attributed to [[Ferdinand de Saussure]]. <!--
Where do Wittgenstein and Quine argue this? [[Philosopher]]s such as [[Ludwig Wittgenstein]], [[W. V. Quine]], and [[Jacques Derrida]] have disputed the possibility of such a rigorous study of language by questioning many of the assumptions necessary for such a study, and have put forth their own views on the nature of language. There is no end in sight to this debate.-->
==Non-human languages==
{{main|Animal language}}
The term "[[animal language]]s" is often used for non-human languages. Most researchers agree that these are not as complex or expressive as [[human language]]; they may better be described as [[animal communication]]. Some researchers argue that there are significant differences separating human language from the communication of other animals, and that the underlying principles are unrelated.
In several publicised instances, non-human animals have been trained to mimic certain features of human language. For example, [[chimpanzee]]s and [[gorilla]]s have been taught hand signs based on [[American Sign Language]]; however, they have never been successfully taught its grammar. There was also a case in 2003 of [[Kanzi]], a captive bonobo chimpanzee allegedly independently creating some words to mean certain concepts. While animal communication has debated levels of [[semantics]], it has not been shown to have [[syntax]] in the sense that human languages do.
Some researchers argue that a continuum exists among the communication methods of all social animals, pointing to the fundamental requirements of group behaviour and the existence of "[[mirror cells]]" in [[primate]]s. This, however, may not be a [[scientific]] question, but is perhaps more one of [[definition]]. What exactly is the definition of the word "language"? Most researchers agree that, although human and more primitive languages have [[Analogous#Anatomy|analogous]] features, they are not [[wikt:homologous|homologous]].
==Formal languages==
{{main|Formal language}}
Mathematics and [[computer science]] use artificial entities called formal languages (including [[programming language]]s and [[markup language]]s, but also some that are far more theoretical in nature). These often take the form of [[character string]]s, produced by some combination of [[formal grammar]] and semantics of arbitrary complexity.
==See also==
*[[List of languages]]
*[[List of official languages]]
*[[List of common phrases in various languages]]
*[[Ethnologue]] - a fairly complete list of languages, locations, population and genetic affiliation
*[[Official language]]
*[[Extinct language]]
*[[Symbolic communication]]
*[[Whistled language]]
*[[Computer-assisted language learning]] (a historical perspective)
*[[Language education]]
*[[Language reform]]
*[[Language policy]]
*[[Language school]]
*[[Linguistic protectionism]]
*[[Linguistics basic topics]]
*[[List of language academies]]
*[[Visual language]]
*[[Intercultural competence]]
*[[Metacommunicative competence]]
*[[Non-verbal communication]]
*[[Non-sexist language]]
*[[Philology]] and [[Historical linguistics]]
*[[Philosophy of language]]
*[[Sign language]]
*[[Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis]]
*[[Speech therapy]]
*[[ISO 639]] (2- and 3-letter codes for language names)
*[[ISO 639-3]] (3-letter codes attempting to cover all languages)
*[[FOXP2]] (gene that has been implicated in cases of SLI)
*[[ILR scale]] (defines five levels of language proficiency)
*Crystal, David (1997). ''The Cambridge Encyclopedia of Language.'' Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.
*Crystal, David (2001). ''The Cambridge Encyclopedia of the English Language.'' Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.
*Katzner, K. (1999). ''The Languages of the World.'' New York, Routledge.
*McArthur, T. (1996). ''The Concise Companion to the English Language.'' Oxford, Oxford University Press.
* [[Eric R. Kandel|Kandel ER]], Schwartz JH, Jessell TM. ''[[Principles of Neural Science]]'', 4th ed., pp.1173. McGraw-Hill, New York (2000). ISBN 0838577016
==External links==
{{Spoken Wikipedia|Language.ogg|2005-07-19}}
*[http://www.primitivism.com/language.htm ''Language: Origin and Meaning'' by John Zerzan]
*[http://www.georgetown.edu/faculty/ballc/animals/animals.html Animal sounds in different languages]
*[http://www.netz-tipp.de/languages.html Distribution of languages on the Internet]
*[http://classweb.gmu.edu/accent/ Speech accent archive]
*[http://www.linguaphone.info Linguaphone official site]
* [http://www.audioenglish.net/ English as a foreign language]
*[http://acp.eugraph.com The Animal Communication Project]
*[http://www2.ignatius.edu/faculty/turner/languages.htm The World's Most Widely Spoken Languages]
*[http://www.watchtower.org/library/g/2000/8/8/article_01.htm "Languages — Bridges and Walls to Communication"], from ''[[Awake!]]'' magazine