विकिपिडिया:विकिज्याझ्वः दुसिका: Difference between revisions

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'''विज्ञान''' (Science)
'''Science''' in the broadest sense refers to any knowledge or trained skill, especially (but not exclusively) when this is attained by verifiable means.<ref> See the entry ''Science'' in the Oxford English Dictionary ISBN 0195222172</ref> The word ''science'' also describes any systematic field of study or the knowledge gained from such study. In a more restricted sense, ''science'' refers to a system of acquiring knowledge based on [[empiricism#Scientific usage|empiricism]], experimentation, and methodological [[naturalism (philosophy)|naturalism]], as well as to the organized body of [[knowledge]] humans have gained by such [[research]]. This article focuses on science in the latter sense.
[[Scientist]]s maintain that scientific investigation must adhere to the [[scientific method]], a process for evaluating [[empirical]] [[knowledge]] which explains [[observation|observable]] events in [[nature]] as a result of natural causes, rejecting [[supernatural]] notions.
Fields of science are commonly classified along two major lines:
:* [[Natural science#Natural sciences|Natural sciences]], the study of the natural phenomena;
:* [[Social sciences]], the systematic study of [[human behavior]] and [[society]].
[[Mathematics]] has both similarities and differences compared to other fields of science, and is sometimes included within a third, separate classification, called [[formal science]]. Mathematics is similar to other sciences because it is a rigorous, structured study (of topics such as quantity, structure, space, and change). It is different because of its method of arriving at its results. Mathematics as a whole is vital to the sciences &mdash; indeed major advances in mathematics have often led to major advances in other sciences. Certain aspects of mathematics are indispensable for the formation of [[hypotheses]], [[theories]] and [[Law (principle)|laws]] in discovering and describing how things work (natural sciences) and how people think and act (social sciences).
Science as defined above is sometimes termed [[pure science]] to differentiate it from [[applied science]], the application of scientific research to human needs.
[[Image:Bohratommodel.png|thumb|307px|The [[Bohr model]] of the [[atom]], like many ideas in the [[history of science]], was at first prompted by and later partially disproved by [[experiment|experimentation]].]]
The word '''science''' comes from the [[Latin]] word ''scientia'' for [[knowledge]]. The [[Indo-European languages|Indo-European]] root means to discern or to separate, akin to [[Sanskrit]] ''chyati'', he cuts off, [[Ancient Greek|Greek]] ''schizein'', to split, Latin ''scindere'', to split. From the [[Middle Ages]] to the [[Age of Enlightenment|Enlightenment]], ''science'' or ''scientia'' meant any systematic or exact recorded knowledge. ''Science'' therefore had the same sort of very broad meaning that ''[[philosophy]]'' had at that time. In some languages, including French, Spanish, Portuguese, and Italian, the word corresponding to ''science'' still carries this meaning.
From classical times until the advent of the modern era, [[philosophy]] was divided into [[natural philosophy]] and [[moral philosophy]]. In the 1800's the term ''natural philosophy'' gradually gave way to the term ''[[natural science]]''. Natural science was gradually specialized to its current domain, which typically includes the [[physical science]]s and the [[biological science]]s. The [[social sciences]], inheriting portions of the realm of moral philosophy, are currently included under the auspices of science as well, to the extent that these disciplines also use [[empirical method]]s. As currently understood, [[moral philosophy]] still retains the study of [[ethics]], regarded as a branch of philosophy and one of the three classical [[normative science]]s.<ref>The Oxford English Dictionary defines science as:
# The state of fact of knowing; knowledge or congnizance of something specified or implied; also, with wider reference, knowledge (more or less extensive) as a personal attribute. (Now only theological and philosophical.)
# Knowledge acquired by study; acquaintance with or mastery of any department of learning. Also (plural) (a person's) various kinds of knowledge. b) Trained skill
# A particular branch of knowledge or study; a recognized department of learning. b) Contradistinguished from ''art''....d)A craft, trade or occupation requiring trained skill. (obs.)
# In a more restricted sense: A branch of study which is concerned either with a connected body of demonstrated truths or with observed facts systematically classified and more or less colligated by being brought under general laws, and which includes trustworthy methods for the discovery of new truth within its own domain.
# The kind of knowledge or of intellectual activity of which the various ''sciences'' are examples....In modern use, chiefly: The sciences (in sense 4) as distinguished from other departments of learning; scientific doctrine or investigation.... b) In modern use, often treated synomymous with 'Natural and Physical Science,' and thus restricted to those branches of study that relate to the phenomena of the material universe and their laws, sometimes with implied exclusion of pure mathematics.</ref>
==Scientific method==
{{main|Scientific method}}
Scientists use ''model'' to refer to a description of something, specifically one which can be used to make predictions that can be tested by experiment or observation. A ''hypothesis'' is a contention that has been neither well supported nor yet ruled out by experiment. A ''theory'', in the context of science, is a logically self-consistent model or framework for describing the behavior of a certain natural phenomena. A theory typically describes the behavior of much broader sets of phenomena than a hypothesis &mdash; commonly, a large number of hypotheses may be logically bound together by a single theory. A ''physical law'' or ''law of nature'' is a scientific generalization based on a sufficiently large number of empirical observations that it is taken as fully verified.
The scientific method provides an objective process to find solutions to problems in a number of scientific and technological fields. Often scientist/s have a preference for one outcome over another, and it is important that this preference does not bias their interpretation. The scientific method attempts to minimize the influence of a scientist's bias on the outcome of an experiment. This can be achieved by correct experimental design, and thorough peer review of experimental design as well as conclusions of a study.
Scientists never claim absolute knowledge. Unlike a mathematical proof, a proven scientific theory is ''always'' open to [[falsifiability|falsification]], if new evidence is presented. Even the most basic and fundamental theories may turn out to be imperfect if new observations are inconsistent with them. Critical to this process is making every relevant aspect of research publicly available, which permits peer review of published results, and also allows ongoing review and repeating of experiments and observations by multiple researchers operating independently of one another. Only by fulfilling these expectations can it be determined how reliable the experimental results are for potential use by others.
Isaac Newton's Newtonian [[mechanics|law of gravitation]] is a famous example of an established law that was later found not to be universal - it does not hold in experiments involving motion at speeds close to the speed of light or in close proximity of strong gravitational fields. Outside these conditions, Newton's Laws remain an excellent model of motion and gravity. Since general relativity accounts for all the same phenomena that Newton's Laws do and more, general relativity is now regarded as a better theory.
== Philosophy of science==
{{main|Philosophy of science}}
The philosophy of science seeks to understand the nature and justification of scientific knowledge, and its ethical implications. It has proven difficult to provide a definitive [[Scientific method#Philosophical issues|account of the scientific method]] that can decisively serve to distinguish science from non-science. Thus there are legitimate arguments about exactly where the borders are. There is nonetheless a set of core precepts that have broad consensus among published philosophers of science and within the [[scientific community]] at large. (see: [[Problem of demarcation#Demarcation in contemporary scientific method|Problem of demarcation]])
Science is reasoned-based analysis of [[sensation]] upon our awareness. As such, the scientific method cannot deduce anything about the realm of [[reality]] that is beyond what is observable by existing or theoretical means. When a manifestation of our reality previously considered [[supernatural]] is understood in the terms of causes and consequences, it acquires a scientific explanation.
Resting on reason and logic, along with other guidelines such as [[Occam's Razor]], which states a principle of [[parsimony]], scientific theories are formulated and the most promising theory is selected after analysing the collected evidence. Some of the findings of science can be very [[counter-intuitive]]. [[Atomic theory]], for example, implies that a granite boulder which appears a heavy, hard, solid, grey object is actually a combination of subatomic [[Particle physics|particles]] with none of these properties, moving very rapidly in space where the mass is concentrated in a very small fraction of the total volume. Many of humanity's [[folk physics|preconceived notions]] about the workings of the [[universe]] have been challenged by new scientific discoveries. [[Quantum mechanics]], particularly, examines phenomena that seem to defy our most basic postulates about causality and fundamental understanding of the world around us.
== Mathematics and the scientific method ==
[[Mathematics]] is essential to many sciences. The most important function of mathematics in science is the role it plays in the expression of scientific ''models''. Observing and collecting measurements, as well as hypothesizing and predicting, often require mathematical models and extensive use of mathematics. Mathematical branches most often used in science include [[calculus]] and [[statistics]], although virtually every branch of mathematics has applications, even "pure" areas such as [[number theory]] and [[topology]]. Mathematics is most prevalent in [[physics]], but less so in chemistry, biology, and some social sciences.
Some thinkers see mathematicians as scientists, regarding physical experiments as inessential or mathematical proofs as equivalent to experiments. Others do not see mathematics as a science, since it does not require experimental test of its theories and hypotheses, although some theorems can be disproved by contradiction through finding exceptions. (More specifically, mathematical [[theorem]]s and [[formula]]s are obtained by [[Mathematical logic|logic]]al derivations which presume [[axiom]]atic systems, rather than a combination of [[empirical]] observation and method of reasoning that has come to be known as [[scientific method]].) In either case, the fact that mathematics is such a useful tool in describing the universe is a central issue in the [[philosophy of mathematics]].
{{further|[[Eugene Wigner]], [[The Unreasonable Effectiveness of Mathematics in the Natural Sciences]]}}
[[Richard Feynman]] said "Mathematics is not real, but it ''feels'' real. Where is this place?", while
[[Bertrand Russell]] quipped, in allusion to the [[abstraction]] inherent in the [[axiomatic method]], that "Mathematics may be defined as the subject in which we never know what we are talking about, nor whether what we are saying is true."
== Goals of science ==
[[Image:Glowing tobacco plant.jpg|thumb|250px|right|Science continually seeks to gain increased understanding and, where appropriate, the possibility for control of many specific aspects of the [[nature|physical world]]. Its successes in achieving this goal stem directly from its ability to elucidate the foundational mechanisms which underlie nature's processes. Here, an image of "artificial" [[bioluminescence]] which has been induced in a tobacco plant by the use of [[genetic engineering]].]]
The underlying goal or purpose of science to society and individuals is to produce ''useful models of reality''. It has been said that it is virtually impossible to make inferences from human senses which actually describe what “is.” On the other hand, people can form [[hypothesis|hypotheses]] based on ''observations'' that they make in the world. By analyzing a number of related hypotheses, scientists can form general [[theory|theories]]. These theories benefit society or human individuals who make use of them. For example, [[Newtonian physics|Newton's theories of physics]] allow us to predict various physical interactions, from the collision of one moving billiard ball with another, to trajectories of space shuttles and satellites. [[Relativity]] can be used to calculate the effects of our sun's gravity on a mass light-years away. The social sciences allow us to predict (with limited accuracy for now) things like economic turbulence and also to better understand human behavior and to produce useful models of society and to work more empirically with government policies. [[Chemistry]] and [[biology]] together have transformed our ability to use and predict chemical and biological reactions and scenarios. In modern times though, these segregated scientific disciplines (notably the latter two) are more often being used together in conjunction to produce more complete models and tools. One goal of science is to explain and utilize multiple known phenomenon with one theory or set of theories.
Despite popular impressions of science, it is not the goal of science to answer all questions. The goal of the sciences is to answer only those that pertain to perceived reality. Also, science cannot possibly address nonsensical, or untestable questions, so the choice of which questions to answer becomes important. Science does not and can not produce absolute and unquestionable [[truth]]. Rather, science tests some aspect of the world and provides a reasonable theory to explain it.
Science is not a source of subjective value judgements, though it can certainly speak to matters of [[ethics]] and public policy by pointing to the likely consequences of actions. What one projects from the currently most reasonable scientific hypothesis onto other realms of interest is not a scientific issue, and the [[scientific method]] offers no assistance for those who wish to do so. Scientific justification (or refutation) for many things is, nevertheless, often claimed. Of course, value judgements are intrinsic to science itself. For example, scientists value relative truth and knowledge.
In short, science produces ''useful models'' which allow us to make often useful ''predictions''. Science attempts to ''describe'' what is, but avoids trying to ''determine'' what is (which is for practical reasons impossible). Science is a ''useful tool''. . . it is a growing body of understanding that allows us to contend more effectively with our surroundings and to better adapt and evolve as a social whole as well as independently.
[[Individualism]] is a tacit assumption underlying most empiricist accounts of science which treat science as if it were purely a matter of a single individual confronting nature, testing and predicting hypotheses. In fact, science is always a '''collective''' activity conducted by a scientific [[community]]. This can be demonstrated many ways, perhaps the most fundamental and trivial of which is that scientific results must be communicated with [[language]]. Thus the values of scientific communities permeate the science they produce.
== Where science is practiced ==
Science is practiced in [[university|universities]] and other scientific institutes as well as in the field; as such it is a solid vocation in [[academia]], but is also practiced by [[amateur]]s, who typically engage in the [[observation]]al part of science.
Workers in corporate [[laboratory|research laboratories]] also practice science, although their results are often deemed [[trade secret]]s and not published in public journals. Corporate and university scientists often cooperate, with the university scientists focusing on basic research and the corporate scientists applying their findings to a specific [[technology]] of interest to the company. Although generally this method of co-operation has benefited both the advancement of science and the corporations, it has also in some cases lead to ethical problems, when the results arrived at in the course of research have had a negative aspect for the financing corporation. A classical example is the history of health research related to [[Tobacco smoking|smoking]].
Individuals involved in the field of science education argue that the process of science is performed by all individuals as they learn about their world.
The methods of science are also practiced in many places to achieve specific goals. For example:
* Quality control in [[manufacturing]] facilities (for example, a microbiologist in a cheese factory ensures that cultures contain the proper species of bacteria)
* Obtaining and processing [[crime scene]] evidence ([[forensics]])
* Monitoring compliance with [[environmental law]]s
* Performing [[medical test]]s to help physicians evaluate the health of their patients
* Investigating the causes of a [[disaster]] (such as a bridge collapse or airline crash)
== Science and social concerns==
A basic understanding of science and [[technology]] has become indispensable for anyone living in a city or town, because technology &ndash; a product of science &ndash; has become an important part of peoples' lives. [[Science education]] aims at increasing common knowledge about science and widening social awareness. The process of learning science begins early in life for many people; school students start learning about science as soon as they acquire basic language skills, and science is always an essential part of [[curriculum]]. Science education is also a very vibrant field of study and research. Learning science requires learning its language, which often differs from colloquial language. For example, the terminology of the physical sciences is rich in mathematical jargon, and that of biological studies is rich in [[Latin]] names. The language used to communicate science is rich in words pertaining to [[concepts]], [[phenomena]], and [[process (science)|process]]es, which are initially alien to children.
Due to the growing economic value of technology and industrial research, the economy of any modern country depends on its state of science and technology. The governments of most developed and developing countries therefore designate a significant part of their annual budget to science and technology research and communication and often have a [[science policy]] and there are some large-scale science projects - often termed as [[big science]]. The practice of science by scientists has undergone remarkable changes in the past few centuries. Most scientific research is currently funded by government or corporate bodies. These relatively recent economic factors appear to increase the incentive for some to engage in fraud in reporting results of scientific research [http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/articleshow/1345552.cms],[http://www.aaronsw.com/weblog/001616] often termed [[scientific misconduct]]. Occasional instances of verified scientific misconduct, however, are by no means solely modern occurences. ''(see also: [[Junk science]])''
== Scientific literature ==
{{main|Scientific literature}}
Science has become so pervasive in modern societies that it is generally perceived a necessity to communicate the achievements, news, and dreams of scientists to a wider populace. This need is fulfilled by an enormous range of [[scientific literature]]. While [[scientific journal]]s communicate and document the results of research carried out in universities and various other institutions, and new discoveries in various fields of science, [[science magazine]]s cater to the needs of a wider readership. Besides these, [[science book]]s and magazines on [[science fiction]] ignite the interest of many more people. A significant fraction of literature in science is also available on the [[World Wide Web]]; most reputed journals and newsmagazines have their own [[website]]s. Also, a growing number of people are being attracted towards the vocation of [[popular science|science popularization]] and [[science journalism]].
== Fields of science ==
{{main|Fields of science}}
<!-- The organizational tables have been moved to the main article "Fields of science" -->
Science is broadly sub-divided into the categories of [[natural science]]s and the [[social science]]s. There are also related disciplines that are grouped into interdisciplinary and applied sciences, such as [[engineering]] and [[health science]]. Within these categories are specialized scientific fields that can include elements of other scientific disciplines but often possess their own terminology and body of expertise. Examples of diverse scientific specialities include [[archaeology]], [[forensic psychology]], [[materials science]], [[microbiology]], [[nuclear physics]] and [[paleontology]].
==Scientific institutions==
[[Learned society|Learned societies]] for the communication and promotion of scientific thought and experimentation have existed since the [[Renaissance]] period. The oldest surviving institution is the ''[[Accademia dei Lincei]]'' in [[Italy]]. National [[Academy of Sciences]] are distinguished institutions that exist in a number of countries, beginning with the British ''[[Royal Society]]'' in 1660 and the French ''[[Académie des Sciences]]'' in 1666.
International scientific organizations, such as the ''[[International Council for Science]]'', have since been formed to promote co-operation between the scientific communities of different nations. More recently, influential government agencies have been created to support scientific research, including the ''[[National Science Foundation]]'' in the [[United States|U.S.]]
Other prominent organizations include:
France: [[Centre national de la recherche scientifique]]
Germany: [[Max Planck Society]], [[Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft]]
== See also ==
* For an understanding of how these fields came to be: [[History of science]].
* See also [[scientist]]s for catalogs of people active in each of these fields.
{| style="background-color: transparent; width: {{{width|100%}}}"
| width="{{{width|}}}" align="{{{align|left}}}" valign="{{{valign|top}}}" |
* [[Exact sciences]]
* [[List of publications in science]]
* [[Military funding of science]]
* [[Perfection]]
| width="{{{width|}}}" align="{{{align|left}}}" valign="{{{valign|top}}}" |
* [[Scientific computing]]
* [[Scientific enterprise]]
* [[Scientific materialism]]
{| class="wikitable"
* [[Controversial science]]
* [[Fringe science]]
* [[Junk science]]
* [[List of scientific howlers in literature]]
* [[Pathological science]]
* [[Pseudoscience]]
* [[Relationship between religion and science]]
* [[Scientific misconduct]]
* [[History of science and technology]]
* [[Historiography of science]]
* [[Protoscience]]
* [[Scientific constants named after people]]
* [[Scientific laws named after people]]
* [[Scientific phenomena named after people]]
* [[Scientific revolution]]
* [[Scientific units named after people]]
* [[Philosophy of science]]
* [[Rhetoric of science]]
* [[Scientific method]]
== External articles and references==
=== Textbooks ===
* "''[http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/General_Science GSCE science textbook]''". [[Wikibooks]].org
* [[National Center for Biotechnology Information]] [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?CMD=search&DB=books Bookshelf]
* [http://www.techbooksforfree.com/science.shtml Science & Engineering books for free download]
=== News and articles ===
* [http://www.hypography.com Hypography - Science for everyone]
* [http://www.thesciencesite.info The Science Site] a New Zealand-based zine with realtime news feeds (very popular site, with the world's first Squidcam).
* [http://www.rinf.com/tech/ Strange Science and Technology News] (Alternative and under-reported video and audio streams with an analysis-ready news network with Online Analytical Processing and embedded Extract, Transform, and Load Data Mining capabilities.)
* [http://science-advisor.net Science-advisor, Online Review of Scientific Articles] (Writings of short comments on scientific articles, reviews and letters with a scientific litterature search engine.)
* [http://www.yoga6d.com/ps.txt Popperian Science] Henning von Weber
* [http://www.newscientist.com/article.ns?id=dn7915 Most scientific papers are probably wrong] - Kurt Kleiner - [[New Scientist]] - August 2005
* [http://www.eviltutor.com How NOT to produce Scientific Graphs and Figures] - For Science students - Markus Weichselbaum, July 1997
=== Resources ===
* "[http://www.sciencechatforum.com Science Chat Forum]" : A discussion forum for scientists and amateurs.
* "''[http://www.newscientist.com Current Events]''". [[New Scientist]] Magazine, Reed Business Information Ltd.
* "''[http://www.science.gov United States Science Initiative]''". Authoritative selected science information provided by U.S. Government agencies, including research and development results.
* "''[http://www.newton.dep.anl.gov/ NEWTON BBS Ask A Scientist]''". The purpose is to provide a means to have questions answered that are not going to be easily found on the web or within common references.
===Further reading===
* "''[http://etext.lib.virginia.edu/cgi-local/DHI/dhi.cgi?id=dv1-57 Classification of the Sciences]''". Dictionary of the History of Ideas.
* Mendoza, Martha, "''[http://www.spinwatch.org/modules.php?name=News&file=article&sid=1265 Allegations of Fake Scientific Research Hit New High]; U.S. Fielded Record 274 Scientific Misconduct Complaints Last Year, 50 Percent More Than in 2003''". [[ABC News]] (Associated Press), July 10, 2005. (source: spinwatch.org)
* Cole, K. C., "''Things your teacher never told you about science (Nine shocking revelations!); Maybe you think that science is devoted to gathering and cataloging facts, and that scientists are a dull, deary lot who don't know how to have fun. Maybe you should think again.''". [[Newsday]], [[Long Island, New York]], March 23, 1986, pg 21+
* Bauer, Henry H., "''[http://www.csu.edu.au/learning/eis/hbauer-intro.html Ethics in Science]''". Chemistry Department, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA.
*John Krige and Dominique Pestre, eds., ''Science in the Twentieth Century'', Routledge 2003, ISBN 0415286069
* [http://lipas.uwasa.fi/~ts/popsci.html A Book List of Popularized Natural and Behavioral Sciences]
===Fun Science===
* [http://www.rmcybernetics.com/ Science Experiments and DIY Projects]
* [http://www.bayerus.com/MSMS/fun/index.html Science Fun for Kids]
* [http://www.sciencemadesimple.com/ ScienceMadeSimple Resources]
* "[http://www.scientificameriken.com Scientific AmeriKen]" : Delving into all the sciences for the purpose of gathering statistics and knowledge for the benefit of mankind.