अल्ब्रेच्त् डेरर: Difference between revisions

m (r2.7.2+) (रोबोट ले थप्दै: ckb:ئەلبرێشت دویرەر)
His prints established his reputation across Europe when he was still in his twenties, and he has been conventionally regarded as the greatest artist of the Renaissance in Northern Europe ever since.
== Early life (1471 - 1490) ==
[[किपा:Self-portrait_at_13_by_Albrecht_Dürer.jpg|thumb|left|Dürer's ''Self-Portrait'', a [[silverpoint]] drawing dated from 1484.]]
[[किपा:Durer herb.jpg|thumb|left|Dürer's own woodcut of his [[coat of arms]]]]
Dürer was born on [[May 21]], [[1471]], third child and second son of his parents, who had between fourteen and eighteen children. His father was a successful [[goldsmith]], originally named Ajtósi, who in 1455 had moved to Nuremberg from [[Ajtós]], near [[Gyula (town)|Gyula]] in [[Hungary]]. The German name "Dürer" is derived from the Hungarian, "Ajtósi". Initially, it was "Thürer," meaning doormaker, which is "ajtós" in Hungarian (from "ajtó", meaning door). A door is featured in the [[coat-of-arms]] the family acquired. Albrecht Dürer the Elder married Barbara Holper, from a prosperous Nuremberg family, in 1467.
Dürer's godfather was [[Anton Koberger]], who left [[goldsmith]]ing to become a printer and publisher in the year of Dürer's birth. He quickly became the most successful publisher in Germany, eventually owning twenty-four [[printing-press]]es and having many offices in Germany and abroad. His most famous publication was the ''[[Nuremberg Chronicle]],'' published in 1493 in German and Latin editions. It contained an unprecedented 1,809 [[woodcut]] illustrations (with many repeated uses of the same block) by the [[Wolgemut]] workshop. Dürer may well have worked on some of these, as the work on the project began while he was with Wolgemut.<ref name="Bartrum">Giulia Bartrum, "Albrecht Dürer and his Legacy", British Museum Press, 2002, ISBN 0-7141-2633-0</ref>
It is fortunate Dürer left autobiographical writings and that he became very famous by his mid-twenties. Because of this, his life is well documented from a number of sources. After a few years of school, Dürer started to learn the basics of [[goldsmith]]ing and drawing from his father. Though his father wanted him to continue his training as a goldsmith, he showed such a precocious talent in drawing that he started as an apprentice to [[Michael Wolgemut]] at the age of fifteen in 1486. A self-portrait, a [[drawing]] in [[silverpoint]], is dated 1484 ([[Albertina, Vienna]]) “when I was a child”, as his later inscription says. Wolgemut was the leading artist in Nuremberg at the time, with a large workshop producing a variety of works of art, in particular woodcuts for books. Nuremberg was a prosperous city, a centre for publishing and many luxury trades. It had strong links with [[Italy]], especially [[Venice]], a relatively short distance across the [[Alps]].<ref name="Bartrum"/>
== Wanderjahre and marriage (1490-4) ==