Difference between revisions of "म्याक ओएस एक्स लायन"

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|date = November 2010
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'''म्याक ओएस लायन'''<ref name="apple-lion-pr">{{cite web|url=http://www.apple.com/pr/library/2011/07/20Mac-OS-X-Lion-Available-Today-From-the-Mac-App-Store.html|title=Mac OS X Lion Available Today From the Mac App Store|work=Apple.com|publisher=Apple Inc.|accessdate=July 20, 2011|quote=Apple® today announced that Mac OS® X Lion [...] is available today as a download from the Mac® App Store™ for $29.99.}}</ref> (भर्जन १०.७) [[म्याक ओएस एक्स]]या च्यागुगु सफ़्टवेयर रिलिज ख। Lion was released on July 20, 2011, as announced during Apple's third quarter 2011 earnings report.<ref name="apple-q3-2011" /> Apple's promotional webpages refer to it as '''OS X Lion''',<ref name="Mac OS X Now Referred To As OS X">{{cite web|title=OS X Lion - The world's most advanced desktop operating system.|url=http://www.apple.com/macosx/|accessdate=11 June 2011}}</ref> although their press release includes the "Mac".<ref name="apple-lion-pr"/> Apple reported over 1 million Lion sales on the first day of its release.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.independent.co.uk/life-style/gadgets-and-tech/apples-lion-roars-onto-computers-with-1-million-downloads-in-a-day-2318755.html|title=Apple's Lion roars onto computers with 1 million downloads in a day|work=[[The Independent]]|date=July 22, 2011|accessdate=July 22, 2011}}</ref>
 
A preview of Lion was publicly unveiled at Apple's "[[Apple Special Events|Back to the Mac]]" event on October 20, 2010. It brings many developments made in Apple's [[iOS (Apple)|iOS]], such as an easily navigable display of installed applications, to the Mac, and includes support for the [[Mac App Store]], as introduced in [[Mac OS X Snow Leopard]] version 10.6.6.<ref>{{cite news| url=http://www.usatoday.com/tech/products/2010-10-20-apple-macbook_N.htm | work=USA Today | first=Jefferson | last=Graham | title=New Apple MacBook Air costs less, plus App Store is coming | date=October 21, 2010}}</ref><ref name=CNetVideo>{{cite web|url=http://news.cnet.com/8301-13860_3-20020208-56.html|title=Apple unveils new MacBook Airs, previews Lion | Beyond Binary – CNET News|work=[[CNET]]|accessdate=October 22, 2010}}</ref>
On February 24, 2011, the first developer's preview of Lion (11A390) was released to subscribers of [[Apple Developer|Apple's developers]] program.<ref>{{cite web|author=Ex |url=http://www.iphoneincanada.ca/apple-software/apple-seeds-first-mac-os-x-10-7-lion-build-11a390/ |title=Apple Seeds First Mac OS X 10.7 Lion Build 11A390 &#124; iPhone in Canada Blog – Canada's No. 1 iPhone Resource |publisher=iPhoneinCanada.ca |date=February 25, 2011 |accessdate=June 7, 2011}}</ref> Other developer previews were subsequently released, with Lion Preview 4 (11A480b) being released at WWDC 2011.<ref>{{cite web|title=Apple devs get iTunes 10.5 beta, Apple TV 2 beta, Xcode 4.2 Preview and Lion Preview 4|url=http://www.appleinsider.com/articles/11/06/06/apple_says_devices_updated_to_ios_5_beta_cant_be_restored_to_earlier_versions.html|publisher=AppleInsider|accessdate=June 7, 2011}}</ref> Lion achieved [[Golden master|Golden Master]] status on July 1, 2011,<ref>{{cite web|title=OS X Lion Golden Master seeded to developers ahead of July launch|url=http://9to5mac.com/2011/07/01/os-x-lion-golden-master-seeded-to-developers/ |accessdate=July 1,2011}}</ref> followed by its final release via the Mac App Store on July 20, 2011.
 
== Release and distribution ==
 
On June 6, 2011, at the [[Apple Worldwide Developers Conference]], it was announced that the official release for Lion would be in July 2011. The specific release date of July 20 was not confirmed until the day before, July 19th, by Apple CFO, [[Peter Oppenheimer]], as part of Apple's 2011 third-quarter earnings announcement.<ref name="apple-q3-2011">[http://www.eweek.com/c/a/Desktops-and-Notebooks/Apples-OS-X-Lion-Launching-iPad-iPhone-Quarterly-Sales-Soar-163074/ Apple's OS X Lion Launching, iPad, iPhone Quarterly Sales Soar]</ref>
 
Apple did not initially announce any physical media distribution for Lion, such as a set of [[CD-ROM]]s or a [[DVD-ROM]] as used for past releases. Instead, the operating system was said to be available exclusively as a download from the [[Mac App Store]] for [[United States dollar|US$]]29.99.<ref name="howtobuy">{{cite web|title=OS X Lion - Get Lion in July. Only from the Mac App Store.|url=http://www.apple.com/macosx/how-to-buy/|publisher=Apple Inc.|accessdate=June 7, 2011}}</ref><ref name="macrumors1">{{cite web|url=http://www.macrumors.com/2011/06/06/mac-os-x-lion-set-for-july-debut-priced-at-29-99-mac-app-store-exclusive/ |title=Mac OS X Lion Set for July Debut Priced at $29.99, Mac App Store Exclusive |publisher=Mac Rumors |accessdate=June 7, 2011}}</ref> The only prior version of OS X that supports the Mac App Store is Snow Leopard, which implied that any machines that support Lion currently running [[Mac OS X 10.4|Tiger]] or [[Mac OS X 10.5|Leopard]] would first have to be upgraded to Snow Leopard, as opposed to allowing a direct upgrade to Lion.
 
Apple later announced two alternative distribution mechanisms for the benefit of users without broadband Internet access: in-store downloads at retail [[Apple Store]]s, and a [[USB flash drive]] containing the OS, priced at US$69, available through the [[Apple Store (online)|online Apple Store]] beginning in August.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.apple.com/pr/library/2011/07/20Mac-OS-X-Lion-Available-Today-From-the-Mac-App-Store.html|title=Mac OS X Lion Available Today From the Mac App Store|author=Apple|date=2011-07-20|accessdate=2011-07-20}}</ref> It is not clear whether the USB distribution will support a direct upgrade to Lion from OS X versions prior to Snow Leopard.
 
The Server portion of Lion is available as a separate download from the Mac App Store for US$49.99, which is in addition to the purchase price of Lion itself.<ref name="lionserver">{{cite web|title=Lion Server - The server for everyone.|url=http://www.apple.com/macosx/server/|publisher=Apple Inc.|accessdate=June 7, 2011}}</ref><!--Yes, $49.99, not $29.99; that's what the reference says. -->
 
== Hardware support ==
The first developer preview of Lion added [[TRIM]] support for [[Solid-state drive|SSDs]] shipped with Macs, which is also included in the latest version of Snow Leopard (10.6.8) shipping with current MacBook Pros before July 20, 2011. As of yet, there is no [[TRIM]] support for other [[Solid-state drive|SSDs]].<ref name="trim">{{cite web|url=http://www.appleinsider.com/articles/11/02/25/apple_adds_ssd_trim_support_to_mac_os_x_10_7_lion_beta.html |title=Inside Mac OS X 10.7 Lion: Apple adds SSD TRIM support |publisher=AppleInsider |date=February 25, 2011 |accessdate=June 7, 2011}}</ref>
 
=== System requirements ===
* [[x86-64]] [[CPU]] (Macs with an [[Intel Core 2 Duo]], [[Intel Core i3]], [[Intel Core i5]], [[Intel Core i7]], or [[Xeon]] processor.)<ref name="howtobuy"/><ref name=autogenerated1>{{cite web|url=http://www.macrumors.com/2011/02/25/mac-os-x-lion-roundup-recovery-partitions-trim-support-core-2-duo-minimum-focus-on-security/ |title=Mac OS X Lion Roundup: Recovery Partitions, TRIM Support, Core 2 Duo Minimum, Focus on Security |publisher=Mac Rumors |date=February 25, 2011 |accessdate=June 7, 2011}}</ref>
* At least 2GB of RAM<ref name="sysreqs"/>
* Mac OS X 10.6.6 or later (Mac OS X 10.6.8 is recommended)<ref name="howtobuy"/>
* 7 GB of free [[hard drive]] space is recommended<ref name="sysreqs">{{cite web|url=http://www.apple.com/macosx/specs.html |title=Apple - OS X Lion - Technical specifications |publisher=Apple.ca |date= |accessdate=2011-07-20}}</ref>
* AirDrop is supported on the following Mac models:<ref name="sysreqs">{{cite web|url=http://www.apple.com/macosx/specs.html |title=Apple - OS X Lion - Technical specifications |publisher=Apple.ca |date= |accessdate=2011-07-20}}</ref> MacBook Pro (late 2008 or newer), MacBook Air (late 2010 or newer), MacBook (late 2008 or newer), iMac (early 2009 or newer), Mac mini (mid 2010 or newer), Mac Pro (early 2009 with AirPort Extreme card and mid 2010 or newer).
 
== New or changed features ==
Some new features were announced at the "Back to the Mac" keynote in October 2010, and the Apple website was updated in February 2011 with more details. Other features were announced at the WWDC 2011 keynote or on Apple's Mac OS X Lion Web site after the keynote. Apple claims that there are over 250 new or changed features in Lion, including:
 
* '''[[Address Book (application)|Address Book]]''' now uses an iPad-like user interface.<ref>{{cite web|title=AirDrop|url=http://www.thegraphicmac.com/mac-os-x-lion-screenshots|publisher=The Graphic Mac|accessdate=March 18, 2011}}</ref>
* '''[[AirDrop]]''' – Lion-to-Lion direct file sharing via [[Wi-Fi Direct]]. No [[wireless access point]] required.<ref>{{cite web|title=AirDrop|url=http://www.apple.com/macosx/whats-new/features.html#airdrop|publisher=Apple Inc.|accessdate=June 6, 2011}}</ref>
* '''[[Address space layout randomization]]''' – Address space layout randomization (ASLR), a security technique that puts important data in unpredictable locations, making it harder to target known weaknesses, is available for 32-bit applications, and "has been improved for all applications", in Lion.<ref>{{cite web|title=Security|url=http://www.apple.com/macosx/whats-new/features.html#security|publisher=Apple Inc.|accessdate=June 6, 2011}}</ref>
* '''Auto-correction''' now behaves much like on iOS devices, displaying an iOS-like popup box.<ref name="250features-text">{{cite web|title=Text|url=http://www.apple.com/macosx/whats-new/features.html#text|publisher=Apple Inc.|accessdate=June 6, 2011}}</ref>
* '''[[Autosave|Auto Save]]''' – As in iOS, documents in applications written to use Auto Save will be saved automatically so users don't have to worry about manually managing their documents.<ref name="autosave-versions">{{cite web|title=Auto Save and Versions – Every edit, every rewrite. Saved.|url=http://www.apple.com/macosx/whats-new/auto-save.html|publisher=Apple Inc.|accessdate=June 6, 2011}}</ref>
* '''[[Emoji]] support''' – Apple has added a new Emoji font commonly used in chat to express [[ideograms]].<ref name="250features-text"/><ref name="fontbook3-emoji">{{cite web|url=http://www.appleinsider.com/articles/11/02/27/inside_mac_os_x_10_7_lion_font_book_3_emoji_support.html |title=Inside Mac OS X 10.7 Lion: Font Book 3, Emoji support |publisher=AppleInsider |date=February 27, 2011 |accessdate=June 7, 2011}}</ref>
* '''Exposé in the Dock''', a way of activating [[Exposé (Mac OS X)|Exposé]] for a single application from the [[Dock (Mac OS X)|Dock]], a feature added in [[Mac OS X 10.6]],<ref name="What is Mac OS X? - Exposé">{{cite web |url=http://www.apple.com/macosx/what-is-macosx/expose.html |archiveurl=http://web.archive.org/web/20101206202621/http://www.apple.com/macosx/what-is-macosx/expose.html |archivedate=2010-12-06 |title=What is Mac OS X? - Exposé |work=Apple.com |author=[[Apple, Inc]] |accessdate=6 December 2010}}</ref> is altered. One must now double-tap with two fingers on a dock icon to initiate single application exposé, or simply right-click or control-click and select Show All Windows.
* '''[[FaceTime]]''' comes bundled with Lion.<ref name="macrumors1"/>
* '''[[FileVault]]''' now offers [[Disk encryption|full disk encryption]] and added security with XTS-[[Advanced Encryption Standard|AES]] 128 data encryption. Support for FileVault on external hard drives has also been added.<ref>{{cite web|title=FileVault 2|url=http://www.apple.com/macosx/whats-new/features.html#filevault2|publisher=Apple Inc.|accessdate=June 6, 2011}}</ref>
* '''[[Finder (software)|Finder]]''' improvements – Finder search allows multiple search criteria to be specified without creating a smart folder, Finder search offers suggestions, files can be grouped by various attributes, and one can now merge files under two folders with the same name – a prompt will appear asking whether one wants to replace or keep both files.<ref>{{cite web|title=Finder|url=http://www.apple.com/macosx/whats-new/features.html#finder|publisher=Apple Inc.|accessdate=June 6, 2011}}</ref><ref name="AppleInsider: Inside Mac OS X 10.7 Lion: New Finder search, item arrangement views">{{cite web |url=http://www.appleinsider.com/articles/11/02/27/inside_mac_os_x_10_7_lion_new_finder_search_item_arrangement_views.html |title=Inside Mac OS X 10.7 Lion: New Finder search, item arrangement views |author=AppleInsider Staff |date=February 27, 2011 |work=[[AppleInsider]] |publisher=AppleInsider, Inc |accessdate=February 27, 2011}}</ref>
* '''[[Font Book]] 3'''—Font Book 3 now provides more flexible displays of character glyphs supplied by a particular font face. Duplicate font files are now flagged with a warning icon, and can be fixed automatically or resolved manually.<ref name="fontbook3-emoji"/>
* '''Full-screen apps''' – Native, system-wide support for full-screen applications. Supporting applications display a new button at the top right of application window, this button opens applications in full-screen mode.<ref>{{cite web|title=Full-Screen Apps – Work and play without distractions.|url=http://www.apple.com/macosx/whats-new/full-screen.html|publisher=Apple Inc.|accessdate=June 6, 2011}}</ref>
* '''High-quality multilingual speech voices''' – users can download new high-quality voices in more than forty languages and dialects.<ref>{{cite web|title=Accessibility|url=http://www.apple.com/macosx/whats-new/features.html#accessibility|publisher=Apple Inc.|accessdate=June 6, 2011}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.appleinsider.com/articles/11/03/02/inside_mac_os_x_10_7_lion_dozens_of_high_quality_new_multilingual_speech_voices.htmlml |title=Archives |publisher=AppleInsider |accessdate=June 7, 2011}}</ref>
* '''[[iCal]]''' has an updated user interface, an annual view, and support for a full-screen view.<ref>{{cite web|title=iCal|url=http://www.apple.com/macosx/whats-new/features.html#ical|publisher=Apple Inc.|accessdate=June 6, 2011}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|title=Mac OS X 10.7 Lion: iCal 4.0 gets annual view, iPad appearance|url=http://www.appleinsider.com/articles/11/04/01/mac_os_x_10_7_lion_ical_4_0_gets_annual_view_ipad_appearance.html|date=April 1, 2011|accessdate=June 6, 2011}}</ref>
* '''[[iChat]]''' now has support for logging into [[Yahoo! Messenger]]. Users can audio- and video-chat with other iChat users using their Yahoo! accounts.<ref>{{cite web|title=iChat|url=http://www.apple.com/macosx/whats-new/features.html#ichat6|publisher=Apple Inc.|accessdate=June 6, 2011}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|title=More Lion features: iChat does Yahoo! IM, does iOS key menus, Live Preview|url=http://www.9to5mac.com/54041/more-lion-features-ichat-does-yahoo-im-does-ios-key-menus|publisher=9 to 5 Mac|accessdate=June 6, 2011}}</ref>
* '''[[Language]]s/[[Language localization|Localization]]''' – [[Arabic]], [[Czech language|Czech]], [[Turkish language|Turkish]] and [[Hungarian language|Hungarian]] are added as full system languages, to make the total number of twenty-two languages available in Mac OS X.<ref>{{cite web|title=System – New system languages.|url=http://www.apple.com/macosx/whats-new/features.html#system|publisher=Apple Inc.|accessdate=June 6, 2011}}</ref>
* '''[[Launchpad (Mac OS X)|Launchpad]]''' – An application launcher that displays an iOS-like icon grid of installed applications. It features the ability to make multiple pages and group apps into folders that function the same as folders in iOS.<ref>{{cite web|title=Launchpad – Instant access to all your apps.|url=http://www.apple.com/macosx/whats-new/launchpad.html|publisher=Apple Inc.|accessdate=June 6, 2011}}</ref>
* '''[[Mac App Store]]''' – An application store built in the image of the iOS [[App Store (iOS)|App Store]]. Like in iOS, it will provide ways for shoppers to discover apps, one-click installation of apps, and one-click updates of all or selected installed applications.<ref name=CNetVideo /><ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.apple.com/mac/app-store |title=App Store – Buy, download, and install apps made for Mac |publisher=Apple |accessdate=June 7, 2011}}</ref><ref name="appleinsider 90 days">{{cite web |url=http://www.appleinsider.com/articles/10/10/20/apples_new_mac_app_store_coming_to_snow_leopard_within_90_days.html |title=Apple's new Mac App Store coming to Snow Leopard within 90 days |author=AppleInsider Staff |date=October 20, 2010 |work=AppleInsider.com |accessdate=October 24, 2010}}</ref> Despite being announced as a future feature of Lion, the Mac App Store was released for [[Mac OS X Snow Leopard]] on January 6, 2011 as it was bundled with the Mac OS X 10.6.6 update.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://support.apple.com/kb/dl1343|title=Mac OS X v10.6.6 Update|publisher=Apple Inc.|accessdate=February 24, 2011}}</ref>
* '''[[Mail (application)|Mail 5]]''' – Uses an iPad-like user interface, has a fullscreen-optimized view, uses chronological "Conversations" to organize messages,<ref>{{cite web|title=Mail – The smartest email app you'll ever use.|url=http://www.apple.com/macosx/whats-new/mail.html|publisher=Apple Inc.|accessdate=June 6, 2011}}</ref> and supports Exchange 2010 (but not through the [[Exchange ActiveSync]] protocol, as [[iOS]]).<ref>{{cite web|title=Mail|url=http://www.apple.com/macosx/whats-new/features.html#mail|publisher=Apple Inc.|accessdate=June 6, 2011}}</ref>
* '''Mission Control''' replaces the "All windows" [[Exposé (Mac OS X)|Exposé]] feature. It gives an overview of all running applications just like "All windows" but groups windows from the same application. At the top of the screen it gives quick access to the [[Dashboard (software)|Dashboard]], [[Spaces (software)|Spaces]], and running full screen applications.<ref name=CNetVideo /><ref>{{cite web|title=Mission Control – A bird's eye view of everything.|url=http://www.apple.com/macosx/whats-new/mission-control.html|publisher=Apple Inc.|accessdate=June 6, 2011}}</ref>
* '''[[Multi-touch|Multi-touch gestures]]''' – Similar to iOS, additional gestures performed using a multi-touch input device (e.g. [[Magic Mouse]], [[Magic Trackpad]]) will allow the user to scroll, swipe to different pages, and enter Mission Control.<ref>{{cite web|title=Multi-Touch Gestures – More natural control of your Mac.|url=http://www.apple.com/macosx/whats-new/gestures.html|publisher=[[Apple Inc.]]|accessdate=June 6, 2011}}</ref> While this is not the first official multi-touch support for Mac OS X, it has been expanded; other frameworks, such as Lux,<ref name="Lux">{{cite web|url=http://gizmodo.com/391103/full+screen-multitouch-mac-os-x-is-here-but-not-from-apple|title=Full-Screen Multitouch Mac OS X Is Here (But Not from Apple) |work=[[Gizmodo]]|accessdate=January 23, 2011}}</ref> have already created multi-touch support.
* '''Multi-User Screen Sharing'''—The built-in Screen Sharing feature now allows remote users to log into a separate user account from the one that is currently logged in. That means that while one user is logged into a machine, a second user can login to the same machine remotely, seeing their own desktop and user environment.<ref>{{cite web|title=Screen Sharing|url=http://www.apple.com/macosx/whats-new/features.html#screensharing|publisher=Apple Inc.|accessdate=June 6, 2011}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.appleinsider.com/articles/11/03/31/mac_os_x_10_7_lion_to_introduce_multi_user_screen_sharing.html |title=Mac OS X 10.7 Lion to introduce multi-user Screen Sharing |publisher=AppleInsider |date=March 31, 2011 |accessdate=June 7, 2011}}</ref>
* '''[[Preview (software)|Preview]]''' gains several features, including full-screen support and the ability to sign a document just by holding a signed piece of paper up to the camera.<ref>{{cite web|title=Preview|url=http://www.apple.com/macosx/whats-new/features.html#preview|publisher=Apple Inc.|accessdate=June 6, 2011}}</ref><ref name="MacRumors: Mac OS X Lion: Drops PowerPC Emulation, Adds QuickTime Pro Features, Much More">{{cite web |url=http://www.macrumors.com/2011/02/27/mac-os-x-lion-drops-powerpc-emulation-adds-quicktime-pro-features-much-more/ |title=Mac OS X Lion: Drops PowerPC Emulation, Adds QuickTime Pro Features, Much More |author=Arnold Kim |date=February 27, 2011 |work=[[MacRumors]] |publisher=Mac Rumors, LLC |accessdate=February 27, 2011}}</ref>
* '''[[QuickTime]]''' re-incorporates some features from QuickTime Pro. New features cited include Copy/Paste, Insert Clip, Crop Video, Rotate Video, Resize, Trim, and more Export options.<ref name="MacRumors: Mac OS X Lion: Drops PowerPC Emulation, Adds QuickTime Pro Features, Much More" />
* '''Recovery Partition''' – Apple has introduced a recovery partition that includes utilities generally found on the OS X discs. This partition will allow the user to restore their computer to its original factory state.<ref>{{cite web|title=Internet Restore and Utilities|url=http://www.apple.com/es/macosx/whats-new/features.html#internetrestore|publisher=Apple Inc.|accessdate=June 7, 2011}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|last=Martin |first=David W. |url=http://www.cultofmac.com/mac-os-x-lion-adds-recovery-partition-support-gallery/83737 |title=Mac OS X Lion Adds Recovery Partition Support [Gallery |publisher=Cult of Mac |date=February 25, 2011 |accessdate=June 7, 2011}}</ref>
* '''Resume''' – Applications resume in the same state when re-opened as already seen in iOS.<ref>{{cite web|title=Resume|url=http://www.apple.com/macosx/whats-new/features.html#resume|publisher=Apple Inc.|accessdate=June 6, 2011}}</ref>
* '''[[Safari (web browser)|Safari]]''' – With full-screen mode and the new [[WebKit2]] [[Web browser engine|layout engine]].<ref>{{cite web|title=Safari|url=http://www.apple.com/macosx/whats-new/features.html#safari|publisher=Apple Inc.|accessdate=June 6, 2011}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|title=WebKit2 Coming To OS X Lion, iOS 5 Could Be Next|url=http://www.applegazette.com/os-x/webkit2-coming-to-os-x-lion-ios-5-could-be-next/ |publisher=Apple Gazette |date=February 27, 2011 |accessdate=June 7, 2011}}</ref>
* '''System Information''' – This feature is a re-design of "About This Mac" and has been completely altered with new views which display graphical information on displays, storage devices, memory usage along with other hardware information.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.appleinsider.com/articles/11/02/26/mac_os_x_lion_adds_new_ios_like_about_this_mac_app.html |title=Inside Mac OS X 10.7 Lion: new iOS-like About this Mac app |publisher=AppleInsider |date=February 26, 2011 |accessdate=June 7, 2011}}</ref>
* '''[[Apple Terminal|Terminal]]''' has extra features, including full screen mode.
* '''[[TextEdit]]''' gains a new graphical toolbar with font selection and text highlighting. The new TextEdit also supports Apple's new automatic file saving and versions technologies.<ref>{{cite web|title=TextEdit|url=http://www.apple.com/macosx/whats-new/features.html#textedit|publisher=Apple Inc.|accessdate=June 6, 2011}}</ref><ref name="appleinsider-textedit">{{cite web|title=Inside Mac OS X 10.7 Lion: TextEdit adds vertical layout, graphical toolbar|url=http://www.appleinsider.com/articles/11/04/08/inside_mac_os_x_10_7_lion_textedit_adds_vertical_layout_graphical_toolbar.html|accessdate=June 6, 2011}}</ref>
* '''Versions''' – [[Time Machine (Mac OS)|Time Machine]]-like saving and browsing of past versions of documents for applications written to use Versions.<ref name="autosave-versions"/>
* '''Vertical text''' – Lion supports [[Horizontal and vertical writing in East Asian scripts|vertical layouts for East Asian languages]].<ref name="250features-text"/><ref name="appleinsider-textedit"/>
 
The complete list from Apple can be found on Apple's website.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.apple.com/macosx/whats-new/features.html |title=OS X Lion - Over 250 new features. Read about all of them |publisher=Apple |date= |accessdate=2011-06-21}}</ref>
 
=== Server features ===
{{Main|Mac OS X Server}}
* '''Wiki Server 3''' – Making it easier to collaborate, share, and exchange information. Users can quickly switch between a server's home page, My Page, Updates, Wikis, People, and Podcasts. File sharing is simpler, and a new Page Editor is added for easy customization.<ref name="lionserver"/>
* '''File Sharing for iPad''' – Lion Server delivers wireless file sharing for iPad. Enabling WebDAV in Lion Server gives iPad users the ability to access, copy, and share documents on the server from applications such as Keynote, Numbers, and Pages.<ref name="lionserver"/>
* '''Profile Manager''' – Profile Manager delivers simple, profile-based setup and management for Mac OS X Lion, iPhone, iPad, and iPod touch devices. It also integrates with existing directory services and delivers automatic over-the-air profile updates using the Apple Push Notification service.<ref name="lionserver"/><ref>{{cite web|last=Finley |first=Klint |url=http://www.readwriteweb.com/enterprise/2011/02/is-osx-lion-server-more-eviden.php |title=Is OSX Lion Server More Evidence That Apple is Gunning for the Enterprise? |publisher=Readwriteweb.com |date=February 24, 2011 |accessdate=June 7, 2011}}</ref>
 
=== User interface changes ===
* Redesigned [[Aqua (user interface)|Aqua user interface]] elements, including buttons and progress bars. The red, yellow, and green buttons in the [[window decoration]]s have also been made smaller.{{Citation needed|date=February 2011}}
* Flexible window resizing from any corner or edge of the window,<ref name="otherfeatures">{{cite web|title=Other Features|url=http://www.apple.com/macosx/whats-new/features.html#other|publisher=Apple Inc.|accessdate=June 6, 2011}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.appleinsider.com/articles/11/02/25/inside_mac_os_x_lion_new_window_controlsgestures.html |title=Inside Mac OS X 10.7 Lion: New window controls & gestures |publisher=AppleInsider |date=February 25, 2011 |accessdate=June 7, 2011}}</ref> similar to window resizing in [[Microsoft Windows]] and many [[X window manager|window managers for X11]].
* The metal finish has also been slightly altered. It is now a lighter shade of grey than before and features a speckled texture.{{Citation needed|date=February 2011}}
* On demand scroll bars now disappear by default when they are not being used, similar to iOS.<ref name="otherfeatures"/>
* Scrolling is reversed by default, to act more like a touch screen computer. (Content moves in the direction of finger movement on touch-pad or mouse.) Also, like in iOS, scrolling "bounces" when the scroll bar hits the top or bottom of the window.<ref>{{cite web|title=System Preferences|url=http://www.apple.com/macosx/whats-new/features.html#systempreferences|publisher=Apple Inc.|accessdate=June 10, 2011}}</ref>
* When resizing a window by clicking on the green button (left-top), a transform-effect animates the enlargement.{{Citation needed|date=February 2011}}
* New windows fly to the front (like opening an app in iOS).{{Citation needed|date=February 2011}}
* The dashboard is now its own space in Mission Control, rather than in previous versions of OS X where the widgets simply flew in and the background dimmed. The "ripple effect" that was seen previously when adding widgets is no longer there due to this change. Users have the option to return to the old dashboard configuration in System Preferences.
* Tabs, when selected, now appear as being pushed in and darkened as opposed to previous versions where selected tabs were highlighted in aqua blue.<ref>{{cite web|title=Inside Mac OS X 10.7 Lion: Developer Preview 3 dials down animated tabs|url=http://forums.appleinsider.com/showthread.php?threadid=123512#other|publisher=AppleInsider |date=April 29, 2011 |accessdate=July 12, 2011}}</ref>
 
=== Dropped features ===
* '''[[Front Row (software)|Front Row]]'''<ref name="AppleInsider: Mac OS X Lion drops Front Row, Java runtime, Rosetta">{{cite web |url=http://www.appleinsider.com/articles/11/02/26/mac_os_x_lion_drops_front_row_java_runtime_rosetta.html |title=Mac OS X Lion drops Front Row, Java runtime, Rosetta |author=AppleInsider Staff |date=February 26, 2011 |work=[[AppleInsider]] |publisher=AppleInsider, Inc |accessdate=February 27, 2011}}</ref>
* '''[[Rosetta (software)|Rosetta]]''', software which makes possible the execution of [[PowerPC]] software on [[x86]] hardware, is no longer available.<ref name="AppleInsider: Mac OS X Lion drops Front Row, Java runtime, Rosetta" />
* '''[[Adobe Flash Player]]''' and Apple's '''[[Java Runtime Environment]]''' (JRE) are not included in new installations of Lion, but both can still be downloaded and installed manually.<ref name="AppleInsider: Mac OS X Lion drops Front Row, Java runtime, Rosetta" /><ref>[http://www.engadget.com/2010/10/20/macbook-air-all-substance-no-flash/ MacBook Air: all substance, no Flash]</ref><ref>[http://daringfireball.net/2010/10/apple_no_longer_bundling_flash_with_mac_os_x Apple Is No Longer Bundling Flash Player With Mac OS X]</ref> Apple will no longer be actively maintaining its JRE, but [[Software Update]] will offer to download Snow Leopard's JRE if a user tries to run a Java program without there being a JRE installed.<ref name=java-deprec>{{cite web|last=Kessler|first=Topher|title=Java for OS X Lion available from Apple|url=http://reviews.cnet.com/8301-13727_7-20081032-263/java-for-os-x-lion-available-from-apple/|publisher=CNET|accessdate=25 July 2011}}</ref> Relatedly, programs using Java, nor ones that require Rosetta to operate, are not allowed to be distributed via the Mac App Store.<ref name=java-deprec/>
* '''[[iSync]]''', software used for syncing contacts and calendars to third-party mobile phones, is no longer included; however, iSync v3.1.2 from Snow Leopard continues to work.{{Citation needed|date=July 2011}}
 
== Reception ==
Reception for OS X Lion has been positive. In an extensive review of the operating system, ''[[Ars Technica]]'' recommended Lion.<ref name=ars/> They noted that it feels like it is the start of a new line of operating systems that will continue to be influenced by Apple's [[iOS (Apple)|iOS]] platform.<ref name=ars/> The review also compared the introduction of Lion, along with its new conventions that change traditional ways of computing, to the original [[Mac OS X]] and when it replaced the classic [[Mac OS]].<ref name=ars>{{cite news|url=http://arstechnica.com/apple/reviews/2011/07/mac-os-x-10-7.ars/|title=Mac OS X 10.7 Lion: the Ars Technica review|last=Siracusa|first=John|date=July 20, 2011|work=[[Ars Technica]]|publisher=[[Condé Nast Digital]]}}</ref> ''[[Macworld]]'' called Lion a "radical revision", praising the changes made to the operating system to be more user friendly to new Mac users that are familiar with the iOS interface, while criticizing the limited utility of the interface. Ultimately, the magazine considered Lion an operating system worth getting, giving it 4.5 out of 5 stars.<ref name=macworld>{{cite news|accessdate=2011-07-21 |url=http://www.macworld.com/article/161026/2011/07/osx_lion_review.html |title=Apple OS X Lion |newspaper=Macworld |date=July 20, 2011 |last=Snell |first=Jason}}</ref> [[guardian.co.uk]] called Lion a substantial improvement from its predecessors, and considered it a "steal" given its price.<ref name=guardian>{{cite web |accessdate=2011-07-21 |url=http://www.guardian.co.uk/technology/2011/jul/20/mac-osx-lion-review |title=Mac OS X Lion: in-depth review with pictures |publisher=guardian.co.uk |date=2011-07-20 |last=Gemmell |first=Matt }}</ref> On the other hand, ''[[Gizmodo]]'' stated that the new interface "feels like a failure" and concluded by saying that "it doesn't feel like a must-have upgrade".<ref name=gizmodo>{{cite news|accessdate=2011-07-24 |url=http://gizmodo.com/5819418/mac-os-x-lion-this-is-not-the-future-we-were-hoping-for |title=Mac OS X Lion: This Is Not the Future We Were Hoping For |publisher=[[Gizmodo]] |date=July 11, 2011 |last=Diaz |first=Jesus}}</ref>
 
Due to Lion's enhanced security features, including application sandboxing, Dino Dai Zovi, principal of security consultancy Trail of Bits and the coauthor of ''The Mac Hacker's Handbook'', characterized Lion's security as "a significant improvement, and the best way that I've described the level of security in Lion is that it's Windows 7, plus, plus. I generally tell Mac users that if they care about security, they should upgrade to Lion sooner rather than later, and the same goes for Windows users, too."<ref name="elreg">{{cite news|url=http://www.theregister.co.uk/2011/07/21/mac_os_x_lion_security/ |title= Major overhaul makes OS X Lion king of security|newspaper=[[The Register]] |first=Dan |last=Goodin |date=21 July 2011 |accessdate=2011-07-23}}</ref>
 
== References ==
{{reflist|colwidth=30em}}
 
== External links ==
* {{Official website|http://www.apple.com/macosx/lion/}}
 
{{Mac OS History}}
{{Mac OS X}}
{{Apple Inc. operating systems}}
 
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