Difference between revisions of "आर्किटेक्चर"

m
बट: पुनर्निदेश मिलय्‌यानाच्वँगु
m (fixing dead links)
m (बट: पुनर्निदेश मिलय्‌यानाच्वँगु)
 
[[Image:Badshahi Mosque July 1 2005 pic32 by Ali Imran.jpg|thumb|left|200px|[[Badshahi Masjid]], [[Lahore]], [[Pakistan]]]]
However, the architecture and urbanism of the Classical civilisations such as the [[Ancient Greece|Greek]] and the [[Ancient Rome|Roman]] evolved from more civic ideas and new building types emerged. Architectural styles developed and texts on architecture began to be written. These became canons to be followed in important works, especially religious architecture. Some examples of canons are the works of Vitruvius, the Kaogongji of ancient [[China]] and [[Vaastu Shastra]] in ancient [[भारत|India]]. In [[Europe]] in the [[Classical antiquity|Classical]] and [[Medieval]] periods, buildings were not attributed to specific individual architects who remained anonymous. [[Guild]]s were formed by craftsmen to organise their trade. Over time the complexity of buildings and their types increased. General civil construction such as roads and bridges began to be built. Many new building types such as schools, hospitals, and recreational facilities emerged.
 
[[Islamic architecture]] has a long and complex history beginning in the seventh century [[Common Era|CE]]. Examples can be found throughout the countries that are, or were, Islamic - from [[Morocco]] and [[Spain]] to [[Turkey]], [[Iran]] and [[Pakistan]]. Other examples can be found in areas where Muslims are a minority. Islamic architecture includes mosques, madrasas, caravansarais, palaces, and mausolea of this large region.
Meanwhile, the [[Industrial Revolution]] laid open the door for mass consumption and aesthetics started becoming a criterion even for the middle class as ornamented products, once within the province of expensive craftsmanship, became cheaper under machine production.
 
[[Image:Bauhaus.JPG|thumb|left|250px|[[Bauhaus]] building, [[Dessau]], [[जर्मनी|Germany]]]]The dissatisfaction with such a general situation at the turn of the twentieth century gave rise to many new lines of thought that in architecture served as precursors to [[Modern Architecture]]. Notable among these is the [[Deutscher Werkbund]], formed in 1907 to produce better quality machine made objects. The rise of the profession of [[industrial design]] is usually placed here. Following this lead, the [[Bauhaus]] school, founded in [[जर्मनी|Germany]] in 1919, consciously rejected [[history]] and looked at architecture as a synthesis of art, craft, and technology.
 
When Modern architecture was first practiced, it was an [[avant-garde]] movement with moral, philosophical, and aesthetic underpinnings. Modernist Architects sought to "strip down" buildings to their pure form. Classical columns and decorations were dubbed unnecessary, in favor simple steel and glass cages, seen as beautiful in their own right. It was during this shift that the phrase, "Less is more" was coined by [[Mies van der Rohe]], one of the Fathers of the Modernist movement.
२९,२१८

edits