Difference between revisions of "बस्फरस जलसन्धि"

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[[File:Istambul and Bosporus big.jpg|thumb|Satellite image of the Bosphorus strait, taken from the [[International Space Station|ISS]] in April 2004.]]
'''{{PAGENAME}}''' हलिमया छगु मू जलसन्धि ख।
[[File:Bosphorus aerial view.jpg|thumb|upright|Aerial view of the Bosphorus strait from north (bottom) to south (top), with the city center of [[Istanbul]] at the southern end.]]
'''बस्फरस जलसन्धि''' [[युरोप]] व [[एसिया]]या दथुइ दयाच्वंगु छगू [[जलसन्धि]] ख। बस्फरस, मार्मारा सागर व दार्दानेल्स जलसन्धिं तर्किश जलसन्धि दयेकि। थ्व जलसन्धि एसिया व युरोपया सीमाना ख। अन्तराष्ट्रिय नाविक ज्याया निंतिं छ्येलिगु दकलय् चिब्याःगु थ्व जलसन्धिं कृष्ण सागरयात मार्मारा समुद्रनाप स्वाइ, मार्मारा सागरयात दार्दानेल्सं एजियन सागर व भूमध्यसागर नाप स्वाइ।
थ्व जलसन्धिया अवस्था थ्व कथं दु:
The limits of the Bosporus are defined as the connecting line between the lighthouses [[Rumeli Feneri]] and [[Anadolu Feneri]] in the north and between the [[Ahırkapı Feneri]] and the [[Kadıköy İnciburnu Feneri]] in the south. Between the limits, the strait is {{convert|31|km|nmi|abbr=on}} long, with a width of {{convert|3329|m|nmi|abbr=on}} at the northern entrance and {{convert|2826|m|nmi|abbr=on}} at the southern entrance. Its maximum width is {{convert|3420|m|nmi|abbr=on}} between Umuryeri and Büyükdere Limanı, and minimum width {{convert|700|m|nmi|abbr=on}} between [[Kandilli, Üsküdar|Kandilli Point]] and [[Aşiyan]]. This part of the strait is a dangerous point for maritime traffic: a 45-degree course alteration is required, and the current can reach {{convert|7|to|8|kn|m/s|abbr=out}}. To the south, at [[Yeniköy, Istanbul|Yeniköy]], the necessary course alteration is 80 degrees. All the dangers and obstacles characteristic of narrow waterways are present and acute in this critical sea lane. At the above-mentioned turns ([[Kandilli, Üsküdar|Kandilli]] and [[Yeniköy, Istanbul|Yeniköy]]) where significant course alterations have to be made, the rear and forward sights are totally blocked prior to and during the course alteration. Ships approaching from the opposite direction cannot be seen around these bends. The risks posed by geography are multiplied by the heavy ferry traffic across the strait, linking the European and Asian sides of the city.
The depth of the Bosporus varies from {{convert|13|to|110|m|ft|abbr=on}} in midstream with an average of {{convert|65|m|ft|abbr=on}}. The deepest location is between Kandilli and [[Bebek, Istanbul|Bebek]] with {{convert|110|m|ft|abbr=on}}. The most shallow locations are off Kadıköy İnciburnu on the northward route with {{convert|18|m|ft|abbr=on}} and off Aşiyan Point on the southward route with {{convert|13|m|ft|abbr=on}}.<ref name="d"/> The [[Golden Horn]] is an estuary off the main straits that acted as a moat to protect Old Istanbul from attack, as well as providing a sheltered anchorage for the [[Ottoman Empire|imperial navy]] until the 19th century.
Most of the shores of the strait are heavily populated, straddled as it is by the city of [[Istanbul]] (with a [[metropolitan area]] [[population]] in excess of 12 million inhabitants) which extends inland from both coasts.
It has been known since before the 20th century that the Black Sea and the Sea of Marmara flow into each other in an example of a density flow and in August 2010 a continuous 'underwater channel' of [[suspension (chemistry)|suspension]] composition was discovered to flow along the floor of the Bosporus which would be the sixth largest river on Earth if it were to be on land. The study of the [[water erosion|water]] and [[wind erosion]] of the straits relates to that of its formation. Sections of the shore have been reinforced with concrete or rubble and sections of the strait prone to [[deposition (geology)|deposition]] are periodically dredged.
==ऐतिहासिक महत्त्व==