Difference between revisions of "बस्फरस जलसन्धि"

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'''बस्फरस जलसन्धि''' [[युरोप]] व [[एसिया]]या दथुइ दयाच्वंगु छगू [[जलसन्धि]] ख। बस्फरस, मार्मारा सागर व दार्दानेल्स जलसन्धिं तर्किश जलसन्धि दयेकि। थ्व जलसन्धि एसिया व युरोपया सीमाना ख। अन्तराष्ट्रिय नाविक ज्याया निंतिं छ्येलिगु दकलय् चिब्याःगु थ्व जलसन्धिं कृष्ण सागरयात मार्मारा समुद्रनाप स्वाइ, मार्मारा सागरयात दार्दानेल्सं एजियन सागर व भूमध्यसागर नाप स्वाइ।
बस्फरस जनसन्धिया सीमा उत्तरय् रुमेली फेनेरी (Rumeli Feneri) व एनादोलु फेनेरी (Anadolu Feneri)या जःछेँ व दक्षिणय् कदिकोइ इन्सिबुर्नु फेनेरी (Kadıköy İnciburnu Feneri)या जःछें नं निर्धारित याइ। थ्व परिधिया दुने थ्व जलसन्धिया हाकः ३१ किमि व ब्याः उत्तरय् ३३२९ मि व दक्षिणय् २८२६मि दु। थ्व जलसन्धिया द्कलय् चकंथासय् थुकिया ब्याः ३४२०मि दु धाःसा दकलय् चिब्याःगु थासय् थुकिया ब्या ७०० मि दु। दकलय् चिब्याःगु थासय् [[लःखः]] संकेत थाकु छाय् धाःसा थन लःखःयात ४५ दिग्रि चाहिके माः नापं थ्व थासय् बाहा ७-८नट थ्यनेफु। दक्षिणय् येनिकोइ (Yeniköy) धाःगु थासय् ८० दिग्रि तक्क लःखः चाहिके मा।
The limits of the Bosporus are defined as the connecting line between the lighthouses [[Rumeli Feneri]] and [[Anadolu Feneri]] in the north and between the [[Ahırkapı Feneri]] and the [[Kadıköy İnciburnu Feneri]] in the south. Between the limits, the strait is {{convert|31|km|nmi|abbr=on}} long, with a width of {{convert|3329|m|nmi|abbr=on}} at the northern entrance and {{convert|2826|m|nmi|abbr=on}} at the southern entrance. Its maximum width is {{convert|3420|m|nmi|abbr=on}} between Umuryeri and Büyükdere Limanı, and minimum width {{convert|700|m|nmi|abbr=on}} between [[Kandilli, Üsküdar|Kandilli Point]] and [[Aşiyan]]. This part of the strait is a dangerous point for maritime traffic: a 45-degree course alteration is required, and the current can reach {{convert|7|to|8|kn|m/s|abbr=out}}. To the south, at [[Yeniköy, Istanbul|Yeniköy]], the necessary course alteration is 80 degrees. All the dangers and obstacles characteristic of narrow waterways are present and acute in this critical sea lane. At the above-mentioned turns ([[Kandilli, Üsküdar|Kandilli]] and [[Yeniköy, Istanbul|Yeniköy]]) where significant course alterations have to be made, the rear and forward sights are totally blocked prior to and during the course alteration. Ships approaching from the opposite direction cannot be seen around these bends. The risks posed by geography are multiplied by the heavy ferry traffic across the strait, linking the European and Asian sides of the city.
The depth of the Bosporus varies from {{convert|13|to|110|m|ft|abbr=on}} in midstream with an average of {{convert|65|m|ft|abbr=on}}. The deepest location is between Kandilli and [[Bebek, Istanbul|Bebek]] with {{convert|110|m|ft|abbr=on}}. The most shallow locations are off Kadıköy İnciburnu on the northward route with {{convert|18|m|ft|abbr=on}} and off Aşiyan Point on the southward route with {{convert|13|m|ft|abbr=on}}.<ref name="d"/> The [[Golden Horn]] is an estuary off the main straits that acted as a moat to protect Old Istanbul from attack, as well as providing a sheltered anchorage for the [[Ottoman Empire|imperial navy]] until the 19th century.